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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2023 str. 91     <-- 91 -->        PDF

phylloxera (Dactulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch), which ravaged the vineyards on Vršački Breg, viticulture production was transferred to Deliblato Sands (as phylloxera cannot survive on sandy soil), whereby vineyards were formed on its peripheral parts (Palfi, Emanuelovac, Vekerle, Šušara and Mramorački vineyards). As vine cultivation on sandy soil requires extremely high effort with considerably reduced yield, most of these colonies were abandoned after a couple of decades. In this period, the state-owned 25,054 ha of land was set aside, and was given its current name “Deliblato Sands.” By 1907, most of the fields were stabilized and forestry activities were intensified, resulting in Deliblato Sands becoming highly profitable and the most organized state-owned enterprise in Hungary at the time.
In this phase, forest management plans were prepared for the Deliblato Sands. In the 1908–1912 period, the entire property was encircled by a border trench and pillars and was divided into 606 × 948 m sections (57 ha surface area), surrounded by fire protection pits extending in the southeast−northwest direction (denoted as letters A−S) and in the southwest−northeast direction (labelled as numbers 1−34). As this type of terrain organization facilitates management, it has been maintained to this day. In first 100 years of afforestation (1818-1918), 20,019 ha were cultivated, 12,189 ha of these surfaces were under forest, of which 7,040 ha covered by black locust, 4,869 ha by poplars and hardwood species, and 280 ha by pines (Milenković et al., 2018). Although black locust was most prevalent, it was often planted in inadequate habitat, which led to the emergence of lower-quality forest. In 1912, five sections of forest management were set aside as Natural Monuments—the first protected areas within the Deliblato Sands. Throughout this period, the range of ecosystem services expanded considerably, including an increase in grazing areas, greater use of wild herbaceous species, introduction of bee pasture, and establishment of wells, shelters, observatories and a metrological station.
• The sixth afforestation period (1918–1945) – The Interwar period and WWII:
In this historically very turbulent period, the creation of Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918, and later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, marked a new forestry era. After the First World War, the Forestry Administration was established, which continued the tradition of afforestation, although the activities were restricted to felling existing forests. By the Second World War, around 2,400 ha were afforested, mostly using black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), and pines (Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold and Pinus sylvestris L.) (Milenković et al., 2018; Figure 8; Table 2.).
• The seventh afforestation period (1945–1991) – period after the WWII:
During and immediately after the Second World War, Deliblato Sands were once again devastated by excessive exploitation, resulting in the re-emergence of free sands. In the Yugoslav period, focus was given to the state modernization. Forest exploitation for timber production was very intensive, in order to provide timber for construction sites, factories and export. In this period, in Deliblato Sands