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from the 1991 to 2016. Therefore, males are singing approximately 6 days earlier over 26-years. For the same time period average spring temperature (April–May) increased by 1.82°C (r = 0.47, n = 26, p = 0.016; y = –117.86 + 0.07x; data not shown). Therefore, temperature significantly increased in the research area during the study period. Relationship between arrival date and spring temperature was also significant (r = – 0.53, n = 26, p = 0.006; y = 52.63 – 1.76x; Figure 2).
My results provide evidence that warmer spring has impacted spring migration arrival dates of Eurasian Golden Oriole in the deciduous forests in northwestern Croatia The advance of the arrival date of Eurasian Golden Oriole has been reported in some papers (Zalakevicius et al., 2006), but on the other hand, some authors found not significant trend (Biaduń et al., 2009). Concurrent trends in spring temperatures and bird phenology over recent few decades are well described also in other scientific literature. According to meta-analysis (413 species across five continents) birds have significantly advanced their spring migration time by 2.1 days per decade (Usui et al., 2017). Murphy-Klassen et al. (2005) revealed significantly earlier arrival in 27 of 96 species in Canada (1939-2001), on average, laying dates advanced 9 days. Furthermore, a long-term study of the phenology of the long-distance migratory Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus (Hermann) and Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus L.) in Hungary demonstrated that arrival dates advanced 7.5 and 6.6 days between 1989 and 2009, respectively (Kovács et al., 2011). Contrary, spring phenology of bird migrants in Norway did not show any changes (Barrett, 2002). Some studies conducted in Croatia showed significant phenological response to spring temperatures, for instance, for the Blackcap [(Sylvia atricapilla L.) (Dolenec and Dolenec, 2010b)] and European Stonechat [(Saxicola rubicola L.) (Dolenec, 2018b)] but not all - for instance, White Wagtail [(Motacilla alba L.) (Dolenec, 2012)]. Therefore, the responses of bird species to climate warming are complex. For instance, some papers discuss possible negative repercussions of a mismatch between spring migration phenology and peak food in breeding period (Visser et al., 1998). This mistiming during the past few decades has caused decrease in population sizes in some species (Both et al., 2006), because of climate change. The stable population sizes of the Eurasian Golden Oriole in NW Croatia could be a consequence of their ability to effectively track air temperature variation.
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