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ŠUMARSKI LIST 5-6/2020 str. 63     <-- 63 -->        PDF

layer. The average elevation was found to be 679 m with a range between479-2288 min the study area (Figure 4). The slope map of forest land that was generated based on the DTM indicated that the average slope was 38.33% in the forest lands (Figure 5).
Assessment of Current Lookout Towers – Procjena sadašnjih tornjeva za nadzor požara
The visibility capabilities of five current fire lookout towers were evaluated by using the “Observer Points” method in the ArcGIS 10.4 program. Forest lands that were within sight of the lookout towers in the study area are given in Figure 6. The results of the visibility analysis indicated that 77.12% of the forestland was visible from the current lookout towers. The forestlands observed by Kandil, Ölemez, Çiçekbaba, Buyancık, and Kepezfire lookout towers were 11745.62, 35960.75, 45774.25, 22397.14, and 16817.34 ha, respectively (Table 5).
It was found that the current lookout towers covering the largest forest land were the Çiçekbaba tower, followed by the Ölemez and Buyancık towers. Some parts of the forest lands were visible from more than one tower while some parts were visible only from a single tower (Figure 7). It was also found that forest land visible by only a single tower was 35.33%. The forest lands observed only by Kandil, Ölemez, Çiçekbaba, Buyancık or Kepez fire lookout tower was 3484.63, 11536.70, 14342.13, 2480.59, and 2933.39 ha, respectively. The areas visible by two, three, and four towers were 30.31%, 11.47%, and 0.02%, respectively. The results indicated that there was no forest land that could be seen by all of the lookout towers at the same time.   
In a similar study, visibility analysis was used to evaluate three fire lookout towers located within the borders of Yayla FEC which is classified as a first degree fire sensitive area in western Turkey (Akay and Erdoğan, 2017). It was reported that 81% of the forest land in the FEC was visible from the lookout towers. In this study, the visibility analysis indicated that 77.12% of the forestland was visible by the lookout towers while it was not possible to monitor potential fires at the rest of the area from current locations of the lookout towers. By positioning new fire lookout towers, non-visible areas from the towers should be monitored especially in the forest lands with high fire risk (Kucuk et al., 2017). Thus, the locations for additional towers should be evaluated to increase the extent of visible forest lands from the lookout towers and to enhance monitoring of potential fires in the rest of the area.
Assessment of New Lookout Towers – Procjena novih tornjeva za nadzor požara
The visibility capabilities of new fire lookout towers were evaluated by implementing visibility analysis in GIS tools. Prior to the visibility analysis, however, potential locations of the towers should be assessed by using suitability analysis based on specified factors such as distance to roads, elevation, ground slope, and ridgelines. The road layer of the study area (Figure 8) indicated that the total length of the road network was 3835.75 km in which a large proportion of the total road being classified as forest road (dirt) (46.19%), followed by gravel road (36.67%), and asphalt