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ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2019 str. 39     <-- 39 -->        PDF

genetic variation of this species is of great importance. In this study, Torul-Örümcek population having the highest Vgam value is located in backward section of Eastern Black Sea Region in Turkey. In the genetic diversity studies concerning oriental spruce and the other species, this area is presented as a region with high variation (Temel 2010; Velioğlu et al. 2012). Ordu-Çambaşı population having the lowest Vgam value is located in Central Black Sea Region in Turkey.
In the scope of the study, three different groups revealed among the populations. Similarly to this study, Turna (2004) found that Ordu-Çambaşı region was located in a group being different from the other regions. It should be added that Torul-Örümcek population stands out with its genetic variation. In-situ and ex-situ conservation of these populations, located in natural distribution area of oriental spruce and having high genetic variation, is important. In Turkey, rough geographical structure, different climate types and soil characteristics encourage to create local breeds even in short distances (Işık 1988; Kaya 1989). Optimal protection of a species and its genes can take place in its natural habitat.
At the beginning of breeding programs, genetic diversity and variation studies are emphasized within species. If there is not enough genetic diversity between trees and populations in terms of desirable characters in tree species, and the inheritance values of tree characters are too low, the expected benefits from breeding will not occur (Işık 1994; Güney 2005).
In terms of climate change, genetic diversity is one of the most important factors that can contribute to the adaptation of species (Thompson et al. 2009; Radu et al. 2014). Characterization and conservation of genetic variation is significant for tree populations exposed to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stress factors in time and space. Since future environmental stress factors together with the global warming will increase, the adaptability of tree populations becomes even more important. The situation of genetic variation in present and future generations will determine this adaptation (Müller 1995).  
The great number of rare alleles being evident in forest tree populations and having a large potential to create genetic diversity should be preserved. Rare alleles considerably increase the genetic variability and thus the ability of adaptation and survival of long lived carrier species of complex forest ecosystems under highly variable environmental conditions. Local populations which are reserves against genetic erosion and genetic pollution should be protected to be used as genetic sources in future (Müller 1995). On the other hand, Ballian et al. (2007b) stated that it would be necessary to establish a dense network of gene banks in situ and ex situ, and to preserve the genetic diversity within populations in order to preserve the natural genetic resources of spruce in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The diversity of gene, species and ecosystem levels for sustainable development should be protected and maintained. Genetic diversity provides wide adaptability and evolutionary potential to the species carrying those genes in order to adapt changing conditions and environments. Therefore, the components of biodiversity must first be protected, then researched and learned, and finally, they should be used in accordance with the principles of sustainability within the framework of the knowledge and understanding derived from them.
This study was supported by the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service).
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