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ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2019 str. 37     <-- 37 -->        PDF

(1:1.279). Thus, it can be understood that discriminative function of the gene differentiation and gene diversity is similar. 
Multi­locus diversity (Vgam) – Multilokusna raznolikost (Vgam)
Vgam attributes to differences among samples with respect to the genetic diversity. This shows the potential of a set of trees in order to produce genetically different gametes. Thus, genetic variation can submit to the next generation. For autochthonous tree populations, genetic variability is a basic precondition for adaptation and survival in heterogeneous environments (Müller-Starck 1995). This measure is suggested to quantify the ability of forest tree populations to create genetic variation and thus to facilitate adaptation to changing environmental conditions (Gregorius et al. 1986).
As can be seen from Figure 2, there were significant differences among populations. Whereas the maximum Vgam was obtained as 18.077 in Torul-Örümcek population, the minimum Vgam was determined as 8.656 in Ordu-Çambaºı population. This was equivalent to a ratio of 1:2.09.
Differentiation among populations (Dj) – Diferencijacija meğu populacijama (Dj)
Genetic differentiation among subpopulations is based on genetic distances. Frequencies of genetic types of one population are contrasted with the weighted averages of the frequencies of the remaining populations. Each population is considered as a subpopulation and differentiation is quantified via the genetic distances between one sample and the remaining ones that are pooled as the respective complement population. As a conclusion, genetic differentiation is quantified as a whole (Müller-Starck 1995).
As can be seen from the last column in Table 3, Dj values differentiated considerably from each other: the maximum value occurred in Ordu-Çambaºı population (0.136), the minimum value revealed in Torul-Örümcek population (0.058).  This was equivalent to a ratio of 1:2.34. In Figure 3, the genetic differentiation was illustrated.
Three different groups depending on the gene pool occurred according to the snail diagram used among 10 populations. Ordu-Çambaºı population differentiating from other regions as genetic structure was in a group by itself. Ardanuç-Ovacık and Artvin populations, being genetically close to each other and separating from the other regions, took place in the same group. Another group was formed by Torul-Örümcek, Tirebolu-Akılbaba, Artvin-ªavºat, ªavºat-Sahara, Artvin-Saçinka, Ardahan-Posof and Maçka-Hamsiköy populations.