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ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2019 str. 36     <-- 36 -->        PDF

Differentiations among populations were evident in respect of heterozygosity, the number of alleles per locus and especially the hypothetical gametic multilocus diversities. Variation parameters including number of trees (N), mean number of alleles and genotypes per locus (AL, GL), genetic differentiation (dT), observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (Hc), fixation index (Fis), genetic diversity (v), multilocus diversity (Vgam) and differentiation among populations (Dj) related to seed samples of Picea orientalis from 10 different locations in Turkey are examined in Table 3.
Heterozygosity (Ho) – Heterozigotnost (Ho)
For a particular locus, the observed heterozygosity (Ho) is calculated by dividing the number of heterozygous trees with the overall number of the individuals surveyed (Goncharenko et al. 1996). The observed heterozygosity (Ho) values ranged between 0.110 (Artvin-Saçinka) and 0.190 (Ordu-Çambaºı), equivalent to a ratio 1:1.72, and the grand mean of 0.154.
Number Alleles per locus (AL) – Broj alela po lokusu (AL)
Mean number of alleles per locus is computed by dividing the number of alleles revealed by the overall number of the loci analyzed (Goncharenko et al. 1996). AL values ranged between 1.70 (Provenance No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9 and 10) and 1.90 (Provenance No. 6), equivalent to a ratio 1:1.12. In addition, the grand mean was obtained as 1.74 alleles. In the studies on other tree species, this value ranged between 1.60-4.30 for Picea abies (L.) Karst., 1.70-4.70 for Abies alba Mill., 1.50-1.90 for Pinus cembra L., 1.20-2.10 for Pinus halepensis Mill., 1.40-1.60 for Pinus leucodermis Ait., 2.40-3.00 for Pinus nigra Arnold., 2.60-4.30 for Pinus sylvestris L., 1.70-3.20 for Castanea sativa Mill., 2.20-4.00 for Fagus sylvatica L. and 3.10-3.20 for Quercus petraea Liebl. Moreover, this was determined as 1.90, 2.30, 1.60, 2.70, 2.80 and 3.20 for Larix decidua Mill., Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel, Pinus sibirica Du Tour, Ficus carica L., Quercus ilex L. and Quercus robur L., respectively (Müller-Starck et al. 1992; Müller-Starck 1995).
Genetic diversity (v) – Genetièki diverzitet (v)
Differences were indicated in terms of the genetic diversity v-values ranges 1.555 (Ordu-Çambaºı) and 1.990 (Ardanuç-Ovacık), equivalent to a ratio 1:1.279, and the grand mean of 1.719. For each population, the comparison of AL and v-values allow to infer tentatively on the mode of frequency distribution of alleles. Samples with similar or identical AL values (e.g. AL=1.70 for Provenance No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9 and 10) can show distinct deviations with respect to the corresponding diversities (v=1.738, v=1.768, v=1.709, v=1.555, v=1.600, v=1.811 and v=1.730, respectively). This demonstrates the greater evenness of the allelic frequency distributions of Provenance No. 9 as compared to Provenance No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 10. In addition, Provenance No. 6 revealed the largest v-value (1.990). On the other hand, it was determined that the second largest AL value (1.80) occurred by Provenance No. 5 and 8, but the corresponding low v-values (1.700 and 1.586, respectively) suggests a larger proportion of rare alleles due to greater deviations from even frequency distribution of alleles (Müller-Starck 1995).
Intrapopulational differentiation (dT) – Intrapopulacijska diferencijacija (dT)
The trends with respect to the gene diversities were also evident for the gene (allelic) differentiation. Accordingly, while Tirebolu-Akılbaba population gave the largest value (dT=0.326), Ordu-Çambaºı population had the smallest value (dT=0.255). These deviations were equivalent to a ratio of 1:1.278. This ratio was very close with genic diversity