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ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2019 str. 33     <-- 33 -->        PDF

Genetic diversity of Picea orientalis (L.) Link populations in Turkey
Genetska raznolikost populacija Picea orientalis (L.) Link u Turskoj
Deniz Güney, Zeki Yahyaoglu, Ali Bayraktar, Fahrettin Atar, Ibrahim Turna
Summary
Knowledge of genetic variation is needed to understanding the genetic structure in forest tree populations. In addition, the determination of the genetic structure in the natural distribution areas of forest trees has become easier depending on the development of the isoenzyme technique. Determining the genetic structure and variations of Picea orientalis (L.) Link, which is limited local natural distribution areas on the world, transfer of this genetic to the future generations with sustainable forestry is important to ensure the continuity of the species. In this study, genetic differences and similarities were determined for P. orientalis populations in selected regions (Artvin, Torul-Örümcek, Tirebolu-Akılbaba, Ordu-Çambaºı, Artvin-ªavºat, Ardanuç-Ovacık, ªavºat-Sahara, Artvin-Saçinka, Ardahan-Posof and Maçka-Hamsiköy) in Turkey. In the study using 10 gene loci in different enzyme systems to determine the genetic variation, the values of heterozygosity (Ho), number of alleles per locus (AL), genetic diversity (v), intrapopulational differentiation (dT), multi­locus diversity (Vgam) and differentiation among populations (Dj) were determined in these populations. The grand means were obtained as 0.154, 1.74 and 1.719 for the observed heterozygosity, alleles per locus and genetic diversity, respectively. Moreover, when the genetic diversity was considered, three different groups arose in terms of selected populations. Since Torul-Örümcek population had relatively higher results in contrast to other populations, this population has high importance for sustainability of gene resource of oriental spruce.
Key words: Genetic diversity, conservation, Isoenzyme, Picea orientalis,
INTRODUCTION
UVOD
Picea orientalis (L.) Link (oriental spruce) spreads over North-East Anatolia and in adjacent region of the Caucasus. The whole area of its present distribution has a North to South extensions from 43050’ N. to 40023’N., and East to West extensions from 44013’ E. (Greenwich) to 37047’E., this area is horseshoe-shaped in outline and is part of the mountainous vegetation zones. The high mountain chains have a great modifying influence on the climate and on the vegetation throughout all the area. P. orientalis covers parts of the big Caucasus Mountains, covering the Giorgi and Tiflis regions, the small Caucasus Mountains, and the Pontus range in North-East Anatolia. Spread to the South-East is prevented by the arid climate of the hinterland. Further limitations are evident by the Black Sea and by mountain chains, except in the West near the Melet River where P. orientalis is restricted westwards of the River by dense beech forest. In vertical direction, it begins at the coastal zone and continues as high as 2400 m altitude (Saatçioğlu 1976; Kayacık 1980; Atalay 1984).
Oriental spruce, paleo endemic tree species (Yahyaoğlu et al. 1991), is one of the most important tree species for Turkey. In addition, this species plays a significant role for the