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ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/2019 str. 43     <-- 43 -->        PDF

(25 %) followed by South European (21 %), European (18 %) and widespread plants (12 %), while other floristic elements were represented with less than 10 % each. Such composition confirmed that the research area belongs to Euro-Siberian – North-American region of Holoarctic (Horvatić and Trinajstić, 1967 – 1981). The life form analysis showed the largest proportion of taxa belonging to hemicryptophytes (45 %), followed by geophytes (23 %), phanerophytes (10 %), nanophanerophytes (6 %), while chamaephytes and therophytes comprise less than 5 % each. Domination of hemicryptophytes, altogether with the large portion of geophytes and a lower portion of therophytes and phanerophytes, is characteristic for the moderate climatic area where the researched area is situated (Gračanin, 1977). By analysing the different parts of the Sovljak doline we have shown that the southerly exposed slope contains 93 taxa, the bottom of the doline 22 taxa, and north-facing slope 38 taxa. According to the results of the Sörensen’s index analysis (Fig. 3), the bottom and the northerly exposed slope have the greatest floristic similarity, while the lowest similarity is found between the southerly exposed slope and the bottom.
According to the analysis of ecological indicator values (Tab. 3), moderately warm-site indicator plants characteristic for moderate submontane habitats dominate in the Sovljak doline. Considering the Eivs for light, the most common are plants of the shade, followed by the plants of semi-shade. Eivs for moisture show the largest number of plants of moist sites, indicating moderately moisturised soils. According to the Eivs for reaction, weakly acidic to weakly alkaline soil indicators dominate in the doline. According to the overall results (Tab. 3), mean ecological indicator values for examined parameters show the transition of habitat conditions between the different parts of the doline. Mean Eivs for light, temperature and reaction show the regularity in the distribution, in which the highest values are found on the southerly exposed slope, followed by the northerly slope, while the lowest values are present at the bottom of the doline. Mean Eivs for the moisture show the opposite result, decreasing from the bottom of the doline towards the southerly exposed slope. Such a distribution indicates that the bottom and the northerly exposed slope represent a well-defined shady habitat, while the southerly exposed slope represents a more thermophilic habitat. As expected, different habitat conditions resulted in the different flora composition between the studied parts. The lower Eivs for temperature at the bottom and the higher ones at the slopes suggest the occurrence of vegetation inversion in the doline Sovljak. The same can be observed from the gradual change in floristic composition across the examined slopes.
During the fieldwork, we have registered a thermophilic beech forest, developed on the approach road to the Sovljak doline, leading from the direction of lake Sabljaci across the eastern slope of the Mt. Velika Kapela. In addition, a thermophilic habitat, with characteristic plant species, such as Ostrya carpinifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Acer obtusatum, Quercus cerris, Cornus mas, Sorbus aria and Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, was recorded on the rim of the doline and in the upper part of the southerly exposed slope, while Fagus sylvatica occurred only sporadically. In the lower part of the southerly exposed slope, thermophilic character of the vegetation weakens, thus F. sylvatica starts dominating the tree canopy. In addition, typical beech forest species such as Acer pseudoplatanus, Polystichum setiferum and Lamium orvala start to occur in this area. The bottom of the doline represents a shaded habitat, with the ground floor covered with