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differences were found only for Thuja plicata. Year of planting according to Koditek (1908−1937) was 1923, while according to Machovec et al. (2005) this tree is classified in the 20-40 years age range.
Crown characteristics were evaluated as well. In most cases shrubs had a typical appearance of habit. On the other hand, tree crowns were frequently changed as the result of the natural development which led to tight growth of woody plants in the area. Elongated and flag-like crowns were found very often.
Damages and pests – Štete i štetnici
Extensive crowns damages occurred especially in 2005 and 2013, as the consequences by whirlwinds. During our investigation, different mechanical damages were recorded, such as: broken branches, damaged roots, hollows, bark absences and pressure growth branches. Damages by climate were mainly due to the weather conditions like whirlwind, drought causing dry branches and dieback of the crown. From anthropogenic damage there were vandalism or fire. Secondary crown was detected in 31% of all woody plants in Bečov Botanical Garden. In addition, we recorded 16% of woody plants growing in slope and 6% having exposed roots. Damages from different organisms were detected in 9% of woody species. Some of the Ascomycete fungi found in the Bečov Botanical Garden are bioindicators of air cleanliness. For example, the genus Rhytisma attacks only maples in the area with clean air (Svobodová 2009). By contrast, some of the fungi species found in the garden indicate bad state of trees, such as: Fomes fomentarius (L.) Fr., Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill, and Trametes hirsuta Wulfen (Pilát).
We recorded 85 taxa and 471 specimens of woody plants in the Bečov Botanical Garden. Evaluation has shown that some interesting woody plants from the original planting plan between 1908−1935 survived in this area to the present day. Most interesting taxa are: Phellodendron amurense, Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Actinidia arguta, Picea jezoensis and Picea engelmannii. Average age of trees is 20−40 years as the result of the neglecting of the garden and the self-propagation of wind-dispersal tree species. Nevertheless, after 2005 fito-sanitary treatments of woody plants were carried out, and present state of the garden is not final, i.e. every year there are planted new woody plants in both evaluated parts.
The authors thank to both opponents for the factual remarks improving the previous version of the article. This work was partly supported by the Slovak Grant Agency for Science VEGA No. 2/0051/17, VEGA No. 1/0628/15, VEGA No. 1/0904/14 and by the ERDF SPECTRA+ No. 20240120002 „Centre of Excellence for the Development of Settlement Infrastructure for the Knowledge Economy”.
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