DIGITALNA ARHIVA ŠUMARSKOG LISTA
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|ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2018 str. 65 <-- 65 --> PDF|
dendrological flora analysis indicates the dominance of trees (58 of taxa; 68.2%), followed by the shrubs (25 taxa; 29.4%), and woody climbing plants (2 taxa; 2.4%).
The current composition of species does not fully correspond with the theory of configuration of phenological groups of garden plants (Bulíř 2011). Current species do not cover the long-established phenological seasons of full bloom and full coloration. Suitable tree species in the main part of Bečov Botanical Garden are: Corylus avellana, Staphylea pinnata, Aesculus hippocastanum, Philadelphus coronarius, Cercidiphyllum japonicum and Phellodendron amurense. In addition, according to Idžojtić et al. (2011) to obtain good results in arranging an area, it is necessary to apply a series of principles: unity and harmony, simplicity, balance, proportion, gradual and natural change, repetition, harmony of forms etc. Likewise, there are many criteria according to which plants for ornamenting an area can be selected (Idžojtić et al. 2010, 2011, 2013; Poljak et al. 2011): size; form; life-span of leaves; leaf shape, size and colour; flower shape, size, colour and scent; fruit shape, size, colour, scent and structure; bark colour and texture; twig colour and shape; foliation, flowering and fruit-bearing period; edibility and aromaticity of certain plant parts; negative effects; growth speed; maintenance demands; resistance to diseases and pests; ecological demands etc.
One of the interesting taxa in the Bečov Botanical Garden is Phellodendron amurense from North-East Asia. Only one specimen was planted which survived dilapidation and breaking of its double trunk by whirlwind in 1980s. Its vitality is the result of root sucker growth (Špaková 2010). This tree, known as the Amur cork tree of gardener Koditek, was awarded as “Hero tree of the Czech Republic” in 2006. Likewise, Cercidiphyllum japonicum, found in the original 1908−1935 planting plan, survived in this area to the present day. One specimen originally had five trunks but two of them were broken in 2005 (Svoboda 2014). According to Jašková (2011) multiple-trunks are the main characteristic of this species. Furthermore, there is one big specimen of Actinidia arguta, 18 m high, growing on a slope. It was planted here earlier than in the Průhonice Park to test its surviving rate (Špaková 2010; Kreyling et al. 2015). From coniferous trees, Picea jezoensis is another specimen planted in Bečov nad Teplou earlier than in Průhonice. There is also quite rare Picea engelmannii, which is nowadays used as seed production tree.
Dendrological and dendrometric characteristics of the researched taxa – Dendrološke i dendrometrijske značajke istraživanih svojti
Average height of inventoried woody plants was 15.3 m. The average height of trees was 18 m, and of shrubs 2.5 m. Tree heights were categorised in ranges as shown in Figure 1A. Average height of the first skeletal branch was 6 m. Most trunk diameters were distributed in 31−40 cm range (20%) as shown in Figure 1B. Age of all trees was estimated according to method of Kubišta (2014). Most abundant tree ages were in 20−40 years (33% of trees) and 40−60 years range (29,5%) as shown in Figure 1C. This is probably result of a long-term neglect of the Bečov Botanical Garden which allowed plants to grow freely and easily colonized empty habitats within park, prominently wind-dispersal tree species. The oldest trees in Bečov Botanical Garden are: Acer pseudoplatanus and Picea engelmannii (100−120 years). Ultimately, results of this age-class method were compared with the exact years of planting of individual trees in the park. Data were generally similar, and significant