DIGITALNA ARHIVA ŠUMARSKOG LISTA
prilagođeno pretraživanje po punom tekstu
|ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2018 str. 62 <-- 62 --> PDF|
Garden were made in 1935. Active maintenance of the garden area was stopped after World War II until 2005. Nowadays, the garden is gradually reconstructed by the Berkut organisation. In 2014 the garden is accepted as a regular member of the Union of Botanic Gardens of the Czech Republic. The garden is interesting not only from dendrological and historical point of view, but it has an important social function as well. It became a place for student education and a natural promenade for public visitors. Making the garden accessible to the public is crucial for various types of botanical gardens (e.g. Nodilo 2011; Poljak et al. 2011).
Presented paper is a result of studies conducted in this garden in last 12 years: flora of historic rock garden (Špaková 2010), reconstruction of rock garden (Špaková 2012), history and future (Svoboda 2014), and current state of woody plants (Špaková 2016). The most valuable part of the Bečov Botanical Garden is the central historical part, because many of the originally planted trees are still present. The presented work provides a comprehensive overview of the woody plants in the central part of the garden.
Study area and research methods
Područje i metode istraživanja
Location – Lokacija
The Bečov Botanical Garden is located in the north-western part of the Czech Republic, near Bečov nad Teplou. In this paper are presented the tree and shrub species from former landscape park and the slope with rockery. The main reason for choosing these two parts is the existence of the original maps from the 1930s. This area geomorphologically belongs to Slavkovský les unit and Bečovská vrchovina subunit (Brandos 2009), where granite and granodiorite basic rocks can be found. Altitude is 505−545 MASL, and climate is characterized as mild to warm, with mean annual temperature above 6 °C and mean annual precipitation of 700 mm. Phytogeographically, area belongs to Kaňon Teplá (INSPIRE 2016). More complex and detailed characteristics and history of the garden can be found in Špaková (2012).
Tree identification – Determinacija stabla
For tree and shrub identification following monographies were used: Horáček (2007) and Hieke (1978a, 1978b, 2008). Cultivars were determined according to the original planting plans (Koditek 1908−1937). Geographical origin of the taxa was also recorded (e.g. Tafra et al. 2012). Woody plants are alphabetically listed in the Table 1, according to Erhardt et al. 2016, with standardized abbreviations of authors of scientific plant names according to Brummitt and Powell (1992). The plant list includes cultivar names according to the List of Names of Woody Plants: International Standard ENA 2016-2020 (Hoffman 2016) and the RHS Horticultural Database (2017).
Basic dendrological and dendrometric characteristics of researched taxa – Osnovne dendrološke i dendrometrijske značajke istraživanih svojti
Furthermore, tree and shrub height, as well as the trunk diameter, height of the first branch, and crown characteristics were evaluated. The tree height, as well as the distance from the ground to the first branch was measured digitally using a laser rangefinder (Bosch Dle 40 Professional Manuals, 2017), with values rounded to the nearest metre. Trunk girth was measured at 1.3 m from ground level, with values rounded to the nearest centimetre. Finally, trunk diameter was calculated from the trunk girth and sorted into 13 categories.
Tree ages were estimated using available data, i.e. planting year for some species was found in the original plans and records (Koditek 1908−1937). On the other hand, ages of the other trees were estimated as described in Kubišta (2014). Trees growth rates were found in Machovec et al. (2005) and Sochorová and Šindelář (2007). Estimated ages of individual trees were arranged into seven categories.
Tree damages were estimated and recorded, these significant properties were observed: pests, fungi, location of the tree growth, secondary crown, double crowns, exposed roots, and year of planting (Tomiczek 2005; Uhlířová et al. 2004; Holec and Beran 2012). The crown characteristics was taken from specialised literature Hieke (1978a, 1978b, 2008), Horáček (2007) and Větvička and Matoušková (1992).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Resultati i rasprava
Tree species – Drvenaste svojte
In the Bečov Botanical Garden, on two fields, 85 different taxa of 40 genera were determined. Of these, 56 taxa are deciduous, whereas the others are evergreen. The most represented genera are: Acer (eight taxa), Picea (eight taxa), Pinus (seven taxa), and Abies (four taxa). In total, 471 woody plant specimens were recorded, with 104 coniferous (22%) and 367 broad-leaved (78%). All woody plant species occurring in the central part of the garden are shown in Table 1.
Origin based dendrological flora analysis indicates the dominance of autochthonous Central European taxa (43%), followed by the taxa from North America (20%), Asia (13%), South-East Europe (6%) and South Europe (2%). Cultivars were represented with 16%. The most frequent species from Central Europe were: Alnus glutinosa (11%), Picea abies (7%) and Betula pendula (6%). These three species were probably not planned to be in such an extent in the garden, and their self-propagation contributed to their current representation. Common alders are mostly found in wet parts of the garden, since soil moisture is crucial for its spreading and development (Pilát 1953; Horáček 2007). Appearance based