DIGITALNA ARHIVA ŠUMARSKOG LISTA
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|ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2018 str. 25 <-- 25 --> PDF|
Additionally the following characteristics were reported, as: wood type, degree of decomposition, presence of hollows, holes, fungal bodies, reason caused the destruction of the tree and others.
Thomas scale (Thomas 1979) (Table 2) was used to assess the degree of decomposition of standing dead biomass and a 4-point harmonized scale (Rondeux et al. 2012) (Table 3) for lying biomass and stumps.
The living standing trees were dominating at all sample plots. The dead trees represented about 3 to 8% of the total number of trees (Table. 4). Most of the observed standing dead trees were broken. The higher percentage of dead trees on the territory of SP 2 to other sample plots was due to the fact that recently there had been snow falls.
On the territory of SP 1 the lying dead biomass prevailed - 52%, standing dead biomass was represented by 46% and stumps were 2%. The fine wood fraction prevailed from lying dead wood biomass - 5,5 m3.ha-1 (Table. 5). With respect to the degree of decomposition the prevailing amount of this phytomass fraction was of class B - 56%, and at least - of class A - about 3% (Table. 6). The standing biomass was represented by a small number of trees (8 per ha) of first and fourth degree of decomposition with presence of fungal fruiting bodies on them. The stumps were also not enough (8 per ha) and the degree of decomposition was C (50%) and D (50%) - significantly decomposed. There was no undergrowth of the main tree species on them, as usually occurs in coniferous species, for example spruce and Macedonian pine (Panayotov 2007).
On the territory of SP 2 the lying dead wood biomass prevailed - 63%, the standing dead biomass was represented with 26% and stumps were - 11% of the total stocks. The coarse woody debris - 20 m3.ha-1 dominated from the lying dead biomass fraction. It prevailed coarse woody debris of rate of decomposition C - 77% and A - 11%, which indicates that the processes of decomposition were still in the initial stage or were not started. Trees from the third level of decomposition with broken tops mainly have been observed from the standing dead biomass. Their quantity was 92 per ha. There were solitary trees where holes are observed. The amount of the stumps was 68 per ha, as prevailing were those of degree of decomposition D (65%) and C (24%).
In SP 3 the amount of standing (52%) and lying dead biomass (47%) were similar. The stumps were about 1%. There was a slight overrun of coarse vs (9.1 m3.ha-1) fine lying dead biomass. Rate of decomposition B - 64% prevailed. Trees of fourth level of decomposition, without branches, with broken tops and presence of small hollows were observed as standing dead biomass. The amount of standing dead trees was 16 per ha. The amount of the stumps was 12 per ha, as encountered by such a degree of decomposition D (67%) and B (33%).
SP 4 was characterized by the following distribution of dead wood biomass components: standing - 62%, lying - 13%, stumps - 25%. The lying dead biomass was represented only by fine wood (3.4 m3.ha-1). The prevailing level of decomposition was B - 81%. Only trees of fourth level of decomposition, without branches, with broken tops and presence of small hollows were observed as standing dead biomass. The amount of standing dead trees was 24 per ha. The amount of the stumps was 104 per ha, as the prevailing levels of decomposition were C (50%) and D (27%).
The obtained results were compared to those reported by other authors. The results of 50-60 m3.ha-1 cited by Zlatanov et al. (2013) for Bulgaria were higher, but they were for old-age forests in some of our reserves. In some of previous investigations of common beech habitat in Natura 2000 sites the quantities between 20-45 m3.ha-1 were calculated (Dimitrova, unpublished). Stocks of 12-20 m3.ha-1 dead wood are pointed about Central and Northern Europe managed forests (Borisov, 2006). Meyer, Schmidt (2011) in their studies have found the quantities of 18 m3.ha-1 standing and lying woody biomass for northwestern Germany common beech forests. Castagneri et al. (2010) measured the dead biomass between 31 to 47.3 m3.ha-1 in Italian Alps. The results of this investigation are close to them and the differences are probably due to variations in the ecological conditions and stand characteristics.
The differences between results of this research and average values reported on the country level are due to the fact that