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ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/2014 str. 32     <-- 32 -->        PDF

Chrysomelidae fauna in Serbia is relatively poorly studied. Only a small number of faunistic papers have been published for the group as a whole or some of its subfamilies inhabiting Serbia. Most attention has been paid to leaf beetle species that have a certain economic importance (Živojinović & Tomić 1956; Nonveiller 1960; Jovanić 1962; Živojinović 1963). So far, 415 species of leaf beetles from 74 genera and 13 subfamilies are known to inhabit the territory of Serbia (Gavrilović & Ćurčić 2011, 2013; Stančić 2013). A survey of the leaf beetle fauna of Mt. Fruška Gora was given by Груев (1984, 1986). He noted the presence of 51 species from 18 genera and 4 subfamilies.
Mount Fruška Gora is an imposing orographical element in the relief of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Northern Serbia). The area of the entire mountain is around 500 km2, while the area of the region higher than 150 m a.s.l. is around 1160 km2 (Ćurčić 2007). To the north the terrain slopes gently downward toward the Danube River. Since 1960 Mt. Fruška Gora is a national park. Today, the national park covers the area of 25393 ha. The highest part of the mountain range is under primary forest vegetation, while western and eastern regions lack the original natural vegetation. Forests remain intact only in certain areas, but other parts of the mountain are covered by grass and bush vegetation and agricultural fields.
Primary objective of this study is to present the diversity of fauna of the family Chrysomelidae (excluding Bruchinae) of the Mt. Fruška Gora. Given that Serbian leaf beetle fauna is insufficiently surveyed we predict that this locality would yield new taxa and new trophic associations. Observing insect feeding in natural conditions is a good way to improve our knowledge of species biology. Bordering the Pannonian Basin on one side and mountainous region of the central parts of the Balkan Peninsula on the other, it is expected that characteristic position of Mt. Fruška Gora would show a specific species composition from different zoogeographical regions.
Materials and Methods
Materijal i metode
Analysed leaf beetle material had been collected from 2001 to 2011. Insects were collected every year, from the end of March until the beginning of November, depending on weather conditions and outdoor temperature. In order to identify host plant species and to observe the feeding of larvae and imagines collecting was mostly done by hand or using an aspirator. Entomological net was used for collecting of species that can fly or quickly get away. On meadows and fields, where one or several plant species were dominant, sweeping method was used. A beating tray was satisfactory method for collecting tree- and bush-dwelling species.
Insects were killed in killing bottles by ethyl acetate, diethyl ether was also used to a lesser extent. Imagines are stored as dry preparations on entomological pins or glued on sample cards in the private collection of the first author. Stereomicroscope Carl Zeiss STEMI 2000-C with independent lighting Schott KL1500 LCD was used for analysing the material. Material identification was done using the keys by Warchalowski (2003), Bieńkowski (2004), Winkelman & Debreuil (2008) and Debreuil (2010).
Trophical relationships between Chrysomelidae and their host plants were identified on the basis of damages to vegetative and floral parts and the presence of numerous specimens of larvae and imagines. Only host plants from which the insects were collected are presented in this study. Economically important species of Chrysomelidae are particularly singled out. Identification of plants was done using herbarized material and photographs taken in the field. Plant identification was done using the keys by Josifović (1970–1977), Sarić & Diklić (1986) and Sarić (1992).
Leaf beetles were collected from more than 35 localities in the area of Mt. Fruška Gora (Table 1). These localities represent habitats with different types and different composition of vegetation: region along the Danube River, wet meadows, willow (Salix spp.) and poplar (Populus spp.) forests, grasslands with elements of steppe and shrub-steppe plants, a zone of shrubs bordering forests, forests of various compositions, forest clearings, stream valleys, lakes, mountain peaks, numerous agricultural fields and plantations, etc. Using the GPS device Garmin Dakot 20, precise locations were determined on which the insect specimens were collected.
General distributional data are included, together with species distribution details on Mt. Fruška Gora. Using the information on general geographical distribution of each species, the zoogeographical distribution was determined. World distribution and zoogeographical analysis is given for all collected species (Warchałowski 2003; Беньковский 2011; Audisio 2013). Geographical distribution is expressed through chorotype association. Chorotype classification according to Vigna Taglianti et al. (1999) was used. Each species is placed within one of the chorotypes of Holarctic and Europe.
In the area of Mt. Fruška Gora the presence of 99 species from 42 genera and 11 subfamilies from the family of Chrysomelidae have been identified (Table 1). Chrysomelinae are represented by 23 species from 10 genera (23.23% of the total number of registered species), while Alticinae include 22 species from 10 genera (22.22%).