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ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2011 str. 26     <-- 26 -->        PDF

J. Medak: ŠUME PITOMOG KESTENAS PRASEĆIM ZELJEM (Aposeri foetidae-Castanetum sativae ... Šumarski list – Posebni broj CXXXV (2011), 5-24

Sometimes there are cherry, lime-trees and flowering ash in the tree layer and often silver birch in
the localities with more light related to chestnut decline.

In the shrub layer, together with chestnut and beech, frequent and well developed are species
from order Fagetalia and alliance Carpinion betuli: Corylus avellana, Carpinus betulus, Prunus
avium, Crataegus monogyna, Acer campestre, Rosa arvensis and Viburnum opulus. The other
group are species from the order Quercetalia pubescentis:Fraxinus ornus,Ligustrum vulgareand
Sorbus torminalis, which occurs very frequent. The ground vegetation layer is very good developed
and made from the mixture of mesophilous species from the order Fagetaliaand acidophilous species
from the order Quercetalia roboris-petraeae. Frequent and abundant are only Rubus hirtusand
Pteridium aquilinumwhich reflect the instability of the forest community. Important for the association
and its characteristics species are Aposeris foetida,Circea lutetianaandGaleopsis tetrahit,
which as mesophilous and skiophilous well describe assosiations character.

Other species from the order Fagetaliaand the allianceCarpinion betuliare: Epimedium alpinum,
Sanicula europaea,Symphytum tuberosum,Polygonatum multiflorum,Pulmonaria officinalis,
Primula vulgaris,Viola reichenbachiana,Galium sylvaticum,Lonicera caprifolium,Carex sylvatica,
Lamium orvala, and from the order Quercetalia roboris-petraeae:Gentiana asclepiadea,Veronica officinalis,
Melampyrum pratense,Hieracium racemosum,Luzula luzuloides,Luzula pilosa. When the
association is developed on the higher elevation, in the beech belt, spring aspect is expressed with a
domination of theAnemone nemorosa,Dentaria bulbiferaandGalium odoratum.According to the
Code of Phytocoenological Nomenclature (Weber et al. 2000), relevé No. 6 in the ninth column of
Table 1 is the nomenclatural type. Two subassociations were identified: typicumandligustretosum.

Aposeri foetidae-Castanetum sativaesubass.typicumsubass. nova hoc loc is negatively distinguished
typical subassociation which growes on deep luvisols and on less steep slpoes (20°). Shade-
tolerant species such as Athyrium filix-femina, Dryopteris filix-mas and Circea lutetiana are
dominant in abundance. This subassociation includes widely distributed, anthropogenic, poor in
species number, variant Rubus hirtus. This community is very specific by its physiognomy which refers
to pure chestnut stands. Shrub layer is also not developed and in the ground vegetation layer
Rubus hirtuscovers often 75% of the area. Interesting species is Hypericum androsaemum, rare in
Croatian Flora, but it occurs frequently at this community.

According to the Code of Phytocoenological Nomenclature (Weber et al. 2000), relevé No. 6 in
the Table 1 is the nomenclatural type of the subassociation typicum. Aposeri foetidae-Castanetum
sativaesubass.ligustretosum vulgarisubass.nova hoc locois more thermophilous subassociation,
distinguished by differential species Ligustrum vulgare,Mellitys melissophyllum and Lathyrus
niger. The subassociation is considering mixture of termophilous, acidophilous and mesophilous
species rather rich in species number. It grows on less acid soils, often on carbonate substrates.
According to the Code of Phytocoenological Nomenclature (Weber et al. 2000), relevé No. 12 in
the Table 1 is the nomenclatural type of the subassociation ligustretosum.

AssociationAposeri foetidae-Castanetum sativaeis classified to order Fagetalia Pawl. 1928, alliance
of illyrian beech forests, Aremonio-Fagion (Horvat 1938) Törek et al. 1989, suballiance Epimedio-
Fagenion Marinček i dr. 1993 which refers to mesophilous and subthermophilous collin
forests of Ilirija. Characteristic (Epimedium alpinum,Geranium nodosum,Knautia drymeia,Vicia
oroboides) and differential (Hacquetia epipactis,Heleborus odorus,Lonicera caprifolium,Primula
vulgarisandRuscus hypoglossum) species of the suballiance are more frequent and abundant in the
subassociationligustretosumthan in the typicum where shade-tolerant species playing the main role.

Mesophilous chestnut forests Aposeri foetidae-Castanetum sativaeass. nova hoc loco represent
the terminal phase of the chestnut forests in Croatia. Primary, it originates on deep and rich soils in
most of the localities on Petrova and Zrinska gora, and secondary, from the association Epimedio-
Carpinetum betuli, where chestnut occurs and become predominant because of the acidification
processes in the soil (north-western Croatia, Moslavina, Slavonsko gorje).There are two possible
directions of the degradation processes in these forests. First goes through the overexploitation,
stamping and soil acidification to acidophilous chestnut forest. The other one, more important and
present in whole range of Zrinska and Petrova gora, is exclusively conditioned by management system.
A few generations after clear-cutting, mixed chestnut forest turn to chestnut monoculture with
onlyRubus hirtusat the ground vegetation layer, which sometimes covers 100% of the area.

Key words:Castanea sativa,Aposeri foetidae-Castanetum sativaeass. nova,Croatia, forest
communities, mesophilous chestnut forests