prilagođeno pretraživanje po punom tekstu

ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2011 str. 33     <-- 33 -->        PDF

D. Kajba, J. Domac, V. Šegon: ESTIMATION OF SHORT ROTATION CROPS POTENTIAL IN THE REPUBLIC ... Šumarski list br. 7–8, CXXXV (2011), 361-370

2. The GIS format (spatial unit) of the data available
within the Basic pedological map of Croatia is an
old format and is not compatible with other GIS
data for Croatia. Specifically, the basic spatial unit
used in most cases for GIS modelling in Croatia is
the level of municipalities (550 entries for Croatia)
or settlements (6736 entries).An example of such
modelling is the application of the WISDOM
methodology and tool (developed by FAO) to Croatia,
which contains detailed data on the supply and
demand of forest biomass (Domac and Trossero
2004). On the contrary, the Basic pedological map
of Croatia uses spatial units according to land types,
thus it is not possible to directly include and apply
the information within the pedological map in other
GIS data.

However, the update and harmonisation of the Basic
pedological map of Croatia represents an extensive work
and is not within scope of BEE project, but this update is
potentially interesting for possible future projects.

Current status of biomass and energy crops utilisation in Croatia

Trenutno stanje iskorištavanja brzorastućih nasada u Hrvatskoj

Energy production from biomass, except for fuel-
wood and wood-processing industry waste, has not
been used in a larger scale so far in Croatia. By establishment
of intensive plantations of fast-growing
broadleaved forest tree species on lands that are abandoned
or where agricultural production is not profitable,
which in Croatia are estimated to cover
approximately 50 000 ha, it is possible to start solving
global but also many local problems in a positive direction.
The soft broadleaved species plantations in short
rotations can be established as energy plantations (biomass
production for energy, biomass dry matter, biochemical
and thermochemical biomass conversion,
plantations for wood chips and pulpwood production).
These endeavours are in line with both the world trends
for better utilisation of energy sources and the biomass
energy utilisation strategy of the national energy programme
BIOEN (Domac et al., 1998, 2001, 2004).
Additional benefits could be numerous socio-economic
positive aspects of bioenergy plantations and biomass
use (employment, additional income, increase of economic
activity, rural diversification and others).

The current status of short rotation crops in Croatia
is still at an early development phase.As described in
the introduction, considerable research activities have
been undertaken by relevant institutions (Faculty of
Forestry University of Zagreb, Forestry Institute and
others) with the main objective to find genotypes

Sustainability issues in Croatia

The main sustainability issues regarding short rotation
energy crops utilisation in Croatia are related to environmental
considerations, specifically the Natura 2000.As
described in the chapterTechnical potential these issues
have been taken into consideration when assessing the
technical potential for energy crops in Croatia.

Other sustainability issues, especially regarding
socio-economic sustainability, were not possible to be
included in the short energy crops potential assessment.
The BEE Methods Handbook (Vis 2011) pro-
which, with minimum nutrients, will produce the maximum
quantity of biomass.This involves selecting, by
means of the research, the most productive clone, giving
maximum biomass production, and, thus, ensuring
its participation in the primary energy consumption as
well as in other forms of utilising the biomass of fast-
growing forest trees. According to the results of the
field and laboratory research, the genetic differentiation
of tested clones with respect to biomass production
in fresh and dry matter has been determined.

The multiclonic approach in poplar and willow plantations
is being practiced in the Republic of Croatia.The
clone arrangement is mosaic. For the purpose of the
exact identification of single clones in the nursery reproduction,
as well as in the planting on the ground, the
plans are being kept.All the poplar and willow selected
clones are entered into the live archives in order to preserve
the selected material through the ‘ex situ’method,
and for the indentification of particular clones.

The selection of the arborescent willows (Salixsp.)
has been carried out in the natural populations on the
area of Croatia. The plant breeding was done in the
intra- and interspecies species hybridization. Establishing
of the SRC plantations in short rotations can be established
as biomass production for energy, biomass
dry matter, biochemical and thermochemical biomass
conversion, plantations for wood chips and pulpwood

–Aspekti održivosti u Hrvatskoj

vides detailed explanations and illustrations on the issues
and difficulties in including socio-economic sustainability
parameters in biomass potential assessment.
In essence, the main problem lies in the fact that social
issues are not possible to be defined and quantified
without taking into account the local context, i.e. without
obtaining feedback from local stakeholders.