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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2011 str. 32     <-- 32 -->        PDF

D. Kajba, J. Domac, V. Šegon: ESTIMATION OF SHORT ROTATION CROPS POTENTIALIN THE REPUBLIC ... Šumarski list br. 7–8, CXXXV (2011), 361-370

sented in the previous chapter, the following area re-the first type of soils, with this average rising to 11 t


mains in regards to the technical potential for energy
crops in Croatia:

Forest area suitable for energy crops: 46 850 ha

Agricultural area with moderately suitable soils and
limited soil suitability: 235 650 ha

Of the total forest area, about 28 450 ha are heavy
hydromorphous clay type of soils and 18 400 ha are
slightly better clay type of soil. The production of


about 8 t DM per ha*y on average can be expected on

Economic indicators (costs of production) –
There are some economical studies about energy
crops profitability, based on experimental field cultivation
of 1 – 50 ha in the eastern regions of Europe, but not
fully operated in a commercial way.Those studies present
establishment cost of 1 500 – 2 500 € for willow and
some studies seem to overestimate incomes because of


possible yields of >20 DM per ha*y .Today, costs for
the short rotation coppice willow are in range of 4.3 to

5.8 €/GJ, depending on the region. For comparison,
costs for straw and forest residues are between 2.4 €/GJ
and 5 €/GJ. For the future, it can be expected that biomass
costs will equalize throughout Europe and drop to
about 3.5 €/GJ to 4 €/GJ free plant gate.

According to the tariff system of Hrvatske Šume

d.o.o. (Croatian Forests Ltd), the cost of establishing
one ha of a short rotation willow coppice (9000 ps/ha)
is about 30 000 kuna/ha (4 000 €). Research to date has
confirmed that these crops are the most suitable for
production and cultivation in heavier types of hydromorphic
soils.The above sum includes the cost of soil
preparation (ploughing and disc-harrowing), the price
of seedlings (cuttings) and two tending operations during
the first year of the establishment of the culture.
Additional tending costs are estimated at 18 000 kn/ha
(2 400 €).These costs include 20 wages for hilling and
two between-the-row rotations with mechanization.
The total cost of establishing and cultivating one
hectare of SRC is thus estimated at 48 000 kn (6 400 €).
On average, with six rotations (six cutting operations
executed two years apart) and with an average produc


tion of 12 t DM per ha*y , the overall production for a
12-year period is estimated at 144 t DM per ha*.The

DM per ha*y in better sites.
A maximum average production of 12 t DM per
ha/y can be expected on the agricultural area with moderately
suitable soils and limited soil suitability.
Taking into account the mentioned values, the total
yield corresponding to the theoretical potential
amounts to 3 257 800 t DM/y.Applying the standard
energy content for willow wood of 18.4 MJ/kg DM this
translates into 60 PJ/y.

Ekonomski pokazatelji (troškovi proizvodnje)


average annual sequestration of 15 t CO ha in the


same period amounts to 144 t COha in all.


The calculation for short rotation coppices of willow
clones over the 12 production years is as follows:

– Total establishment and maintenance costs of one
ha SRC = 48 000 kn (6 400 €),
– Atotal of 144 t DM per ha* will be produced,
– The cost of produced biomass is 48,000 kn / 144 t =
333 kn (i.e. 45.6 €/t)
– The total quantity of sequestered CO emissions is


estimated at 144 t CO/ha


It is important to point out that, contrary to some
neighbouring countries, and due to the lack of stimulating
measures of the state, plantation afforestation is
still restricted mainly to the state owned land.

Certain measures of state policy on the use of land,
as well as the fiscal and incentive measures (tax exemption,
credit, provision of plant material and technology
support) could help poplar and willow
cultivation on privately owned marginal land. These
processes, to a lesser degree, are initially present, but
on the local level.

The calculation of a SRC establishment does not include
support by the Ministry. Unlike Croatia, support
in the form of exemption from land taxes for the period
of 15 years is a common practice in the EU countries.
Costs of establishing and maintaining 1 ha by a private
farmer would be much lower compared to the cost of
Croatian Forests Ltd due to the use of the farmer’sown
modified agricultural mechanization and labour force.

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION –Analiza i diskusija
Data gaps and methodological challenges – Nedostaci u podacima i primjene metodologije

The methodology and data utilisation/requirements
for the estimated theoretical and technical potential for
short rotation crops in Croatia are based on the Basic
pedological map of the Republic of Croatia, which was
created as a result of the project coordinated by the
Ministry of Science andTechnology which lasted from

1985 to 1996. In that regard the following can be concluded
regarding the adequacy of used data:

1. The Basic pedological map of Croatia was developed
in 1996, and while it is a fact that soil type
changes are rather slow and take many years, a data
update is considered necessary;