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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2011 str. 18     <-- 18 -->        PDF

T. Jakovljević, M. Gradečki-Poštenjak1, I. Radojčić Redovniković: FIZIOLOŠKA, KEMIJSKAI ... Šumarski list br. 7–8, CXXXV (2011), 343-352

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SUMMARY: The stone pine (Pinus pineaL.) is typically Mediterranean tree species found
along the Mediterranean basin. In Croatia the stone pine is natively distributed on the island of
Mljet, the locality Saplunara. The use of these seeds is extensive in the trade, the ecology, the
landscape as well as in the nutrition. In the forestry it is used for the reforestation of degraded
stands of the Mediterranean Karst region in Croatia. The umbrella shaped crown gives it very
decorative form interesting in horticulture. The chemical composition is the reason for nutritive
and health values. The seeds are rich in proteins, vitamins A, B, C, D and E, iron, magnesium,
phosphorus, zinc, unsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. In this research qualitative properties
of seed (germination capacity, 1000 seed weight, moisture content), the chemical composition
and antioxidant properties of seed coat and the seed (amount of total sulphur, total nitrogen
and crude protein, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese
and total polyphenols) were investigated.

Physiological, chemical and antioxidant properties were investigated on fresh seed (3 provenances)
and stored seed (1 provenance). Fresh seed was collected in 2009 and stored seed was
collected in 1995 on the area of Forest Enterprise Split. The germination capacity was higher
than the standard value. The provenance Mljet had low germination energy and the highest percentage
of empty seed. The reason for this was the age of trees. The percentage of fresh ungerminated
seed has shown seed dormancy, and the average was 9%. It was the type of mechanical
dormancy. The provenance Dubrovnik had the highest percentage of fresh ungerminated seed.
The seed health of all investigated provenance was good (Table 2). The average of germination
capacity of stored seed provenance Zadar in the period from 1995 to 2010 was 74% (Table 3).
Significant amount of nitrogen and sulphur gives the embryo the power to growth. The total
amount of nitrogen, sulphur, crude protein and phosphorus was higher in the seed than in the
seed coat. The high amount of crude protein shows that the stone pine seed is good source of
proteins (Table 4). Stone pine seeds are rich in minerals, the most abundant element was potassium
than phosphorus and magnesium. The other element abundance was as follows: calcium,
iron, manganese, zinc and copper. Provenance Mljet (natural stand) had the highest amount of
all investigated elements except phosphorus because it was an old stand (Table 5). There is no
significant difference of mineral composition in the seed and in the seed coat. The amount of
total polyphenols and the antioxidant capacity were investigated in the seed and in the seed
coat. From the obtained results of total polyphenols it could be seen that seed from different provenances
had different amount of polyphenols. The concentrations of total polyphenols were
two times higher in the seed coat that in the seed (Figure 3). Antioxidant capacity i.e. ORAC values
were significantly higher in the seed coat than in the seed (Figure 4). The linear correlation
with high coefficient of determination was found between total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity
(Figure 5). Total polyphenols are responsible for antioxidant activity. Research results
are in good agreement with the reported values in other Mediterranean countries.

The use of stone pine seed in Croatia is negligible therefore its production should be increased.
Physical, physiological, nutritive and health properties of stone pine seed indicates that the
foundation of multifunctional seed orchards would be necessary for seed production.

Key words:antioxidant capacity, chemical composition, seed quality, Pinus pineaL., polyphenols,
seed coat, stone pine seed