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D. Ballian, F. Bogunić, M. Konnert, H. Kraigher, M. Pučko, G. Božič: GENETIČKA DIFERENCIRANOST ... Šumarski list br. 1–2, CXXXI (2007), 13-24
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SUMMARY: In this study we analyzed the genetic structure of two autochthonous subpopulations
of Norway spruce in the Mountain of Igman by usage of isoenzyme markers.
We collected the material for the analysis in two separate plant communities. The subpopulation
Igman – A is represented by fir-tree and spruce forest with randomly distributed
white pine trees (Abieti-Piceetum illyricum Stef. 1960) while the Igman – B subpopulation
is represented through the spruce tree of frosty type in the mountain area (Piceetum
montanum s.lat. (Fuk. et Stef., 1958, emend. Horv. et al., 1974)). Between the subpopulations
there is a 150 m difference in altitude. We analyzed the following systems of Acotinase
(Aco-A), Glutamate dehydrogenase (Gdh-A), Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase
(Got-A, Got-B, Got-C), Izocitrate dehidrogenase (Idh-A, Idh-B), Leucine aminopeptidase
(Lap-B), Malate dehydrogenase (Mdh-A, Mdh-B, Mdh-C), Menadione reductase (Mnr-A,
Mnr-C), Phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi-B), Phosphoglucomutase (Pgm-A), Shikimate
dehydrogenase (Skdh-A), 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-Pgdh-A, 6-Pgdh-B,
6-Pgdh-C) and Fluorescentesterase (Fest-B).
The frequency of the allele and the frequency of genotypes show diversity between subpopulations.
The Allele differentiation was most evident at loci Got-C, 6-Pgdh-A. In the
sample of the Igman – A subpopulation the frequency of the allele Aco-A2 was 7 % lower,
and the frequency of 6-Pgdh-A2 7 % higher than in the sample from Igman – B subpopulation.
The genotype subpopulations are most explicitly differentiated at loci Fest-B, Got-C,
Lap-B, Mdh-C, Mnr-A, Mnr-C, Pgi-B, 6-Pgdh-A, 6-Pgdh-B, 6-Pgdh-C. If the Igman – A
subpopulation is compared with Igman – B subpopulation, we have 8–14% higher frequency
of homozygote: Got-C44 (52 % vs. 44 %), Fest22 (90 % vs. 80 %), Mnr-A22 (12 % vs.
4 %), Mnr-C22 (94 % vs. 82 %), 6-Pgdh-A22 (94 % vs. 80 %), 6-Pgdh-C22 (42 % vs. 30 %)
and from 10–14 % higher heterozygote frequency for gene loci: Lap-B46 (12 % vs. 0 %),
Pgi-B23 (52 % vs. 42 %), 6-Pgdh-B25 (54 % vs. 40 %). In Igman – B subpopulation versus
Igman – A subpopulation has 10 % higher homozygote frequency, as follows: Pgi-B33
(46 % vs. 36 %), 6-Pgdh-B22 (50 % vs. 40 %) and between 8–14 % heterozygote frequency
Fest-B12 (14 % vs. 2 %), Mnr-A24 (70 % vs. 56 %), Mnr-C23 (16 % vs. 4 %),
6-Pgdh-A23 (12 % vs. 4 %), 6-Pgdh-C25 (60 % vs. 46 %).
By statistical calculation we obtained an average number of allele per locus, thus in the
subpopulation A the number of allele per locus was 2,71, and the effective was 1,307, and
in the subpopulation B it was 2,59, while the effective number was 1,332. The actual heterozygosis
in subpopulation A was 24,4 %, and expected was 84,1 %, and in the subpopulation
B the actual was 26,2 %, and expected 81,9 %. The number of polymorphous loci in
both populations was 17, and the percentage of polymorphous loci was 85,00%.
Through the analysis of the allele genetic closeness and genetic distance (d0), we can
conclude that the closeness is very high, and differences are relatively small. Thus we determined
that the allele closeness has the value of 0,959, and the distance is 0,041 according
to Gregorius (1974), which in our case is an extremely high value taking into account
the distance between subpopulations of approximately 2 km.
Applied statistical parameters for comparison of populations did not show major differences,
but the analysis of the direct comparison of the allele presence and their frequency
points at the existence of differences, that is, the influence of diverse selection pressures at