DIGITALNA ARHIVA ŠUMARSKOG LISTA
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|ŠUMARSKI LIST 5-6/2006 str. 59 <-- 59 --> PDF|
T. Dubravac, V. Krejči, B. Vrbek: STRUKTURA I RAZVOJ 161 GODINU STARE SMREKOVE KULTURE
SUMMARY: For the purpose of monitoring the natural course of development
of a planted stand, in 1956 J. Šafar established a permanent experimental
plot in a spruce culture. Based on an analysis of 16 spruce trees in 1957,
the culture at the time of establishment of the plot was 113 years old, which
indicates that the stand was planted in 1843. The plot was established in the
“Delnice” Forest Office, Management Unit of Delnice, in the region of Velika
Rebar-Sović laz. The plot was used to monitor the natural stand structure development
and reforestation of the stand in the period from 1956 to 2004. The
area, prior to planting of the spruce, had been a meadow (grass cutting) pasture.
The culture was very well preserved which can be attributed to the forest
management of the aristocrats Thurn-Taxis (landowners) from 1872 to 1939.
The plot borders with a natural forest of beech and fir (Omphalodo-Fagetum
Marinček et al, 1992) on dolomite. The immediate vicinity of these stands is
reflected in the return of beech, maple, fir and other tree species and shrubs to
their original site, which man had transformed into a hayfield-laz and 161
years ago into a spruce culture.
The spruce culture during the observed period, and during five successive
measurements (1956, 1957, 1962, 1994 and 2004) had unimodal distribution
of d b h (number of trees) characteristic of even-aged stands. Distribution of
the understory beech and some fir, later ingrown into the spruce culture, showed
decreasing distribution of d b h characteristic of selection stands.
Measurement of young growth showed that the number of the fir seedling
plants during the last ten years (1994–2004) increased by almost 100 % (from
4 700 to 8 950 plants per ha), although not one exceeded 30 cm in height. The
number of beech young plants was insufficient (1 250 plants in 1994 and 950
plants in 2004 per ha), of extremely poor quality. In the development stage of
seedling plants and young plants maple appeared in greater numbers. However,
because of the excessive crown cover over soil by the spruce and beech,
amounting to 88 %, and browsing by wild game, it did not achieve reforestation
of higher quality. A young spruce stand, under canopy, formed from the
seeds of the old spruce culture, exists on the neglected meadow, in a frost-exposed
site in the vicinity of the experimental plot.
Parental material of dolomite conditions a series of soils: rendzina-brown
soil on dolomite – luvisol. Luvisols occur predominantly in sinkholes, while
rendzinas and brown soils on dolomite are found on the steeper slopes and on
the crests. Brown soils on dolomites are predominant amounting to around
50 %, rendzinas participate with 30 %, and luvisols in sinkholes amount to
20 %. Results achieved from the chemical and physical analyses indicate that
the soils from the natural fir-beech stand and meadow are richer with nutrients
and humus than the soils from the spruce culture.
In view of the present state of the structure and lack of management interventions
during the last 42 years, future investigations should be directed in
two parallel directions. Namely, monitoring the natural course of spruce culture
development and monitoring the success of reforestation by the application
of combined methods of reforestation on small areas (groupwise and
nestwise) and development of these stands into beech-fir stands.
K e y w o rd s : stand structure, natural reforestation, young growth,
crown cover, pedological analyses, spruce, beech, fir
Šumarski list br. 5–6, CXXX (2006), 219-229