DIGITALNA ARHIVA ŠUMARSKOG LISTA
prilagođeno pretraživanje po punom tekstu




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 18     <-- 18 -->        PDF

Z. Vicha: FIFTY YEARS OF THF FORESTRY IIYDRO-PFDOFOGICAL RESEARCH WITHIN THE FOREST ... Šumarski list SUPLF.MF.NT (2005). 7-16
for beech is of higher importance, with respect to water lower capacity of more flat root system of spruce, to use
run-off, than the different ways of forest management. the precipitation water infiltrated to deeper horizons,
Evapotranspiration was lowered, most probably due to which resulted in increased minimal run-off.


CONCLUSION AND PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS


Natural retention capacity of forests is limited. Under
the most intensive precipitation even natural forest
stand is not capable to prevent flooding. In forest management
it is recommended to create suitable species
composition and balanced age composition. In forest
regeneration it is important to stabilize the new cultures
in time, and to preserve suitable qualities of the forest
soil of high infiltration capacity. In forest tending
mainly the resistance of the young stands against damage
by biotic and a biotic agents is to be supported, to
prevent their disturbing and preserve their capacity of
positive impact on hydrological regime. Well-planned
forest roads and technological lines have to respect sa


ve run-off of cumulated precipitation water of these
horizontal objects. Also torrent control, done in proper,
nature close way, is of importance. The aim is to prevent
erosion, which is than worsening the impact of
flood wave in the lower parts of the water run. Streamside
stands have to be well kept, and the species of
strong root system, fixing the riverbanks and resistant
in culmination flows are to be supported.


It is clear that such a sensitive approach can be more
easily ensured in the small-extent, nature close forest
management. From the viewpoint of other important forest
functions such management has many other advantages,
mainly in the spring area of mountain water runs.




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 15     <-- 15 -->        PDF

PRESENTATION AT THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
Šumarski list SUPLF.MENT (2005), 7-16


FIFTY YEARS OF FORESTRY HYDRO-PEDOLOGICAL RESEARCH
WITHIN THE FOREST BASINS OF MOUNTAIN WATER RUNS


Zdenek VICHA*


SUMMARY: After a period offiftyyears, measurements of hydrological and
climatic data in two experimental basins of Cervik (CE) and Mala Rdztoka
(MR) were completed on 31 October 2003. The goal of research was to evaluate
the relationship between rainfall and outflow as elements of water balance in
small forested watersheds. According to the experiment, the relationship between
precipitation and outflows in small forested mountain watersheds depends
more on natural elements than on methods of forest management. In
terms of infiltration and retention quality, forest soils are very important elements
in a watershed hydrological regime. We would like to present efficient
suggestions for forest management obtained from long-lasting research, which
can be related to the rotation cycle of a forest, for example.


INTRODUCTION


Measuring, evaluation and modelling of the precipimany
other experiments worldwide. Measuring and
tation-run-off relationship in the forested mountain baevaluation
of the precipitation - run-off relationship in
sins has a long tradition in many countries. In Czechosthe
small forested basins, and the impact on individual
lovakia forestry-hydrological measuring has been initiacomponents
of the forest management is the primary
ted already in 1928, by Mr. V ä 1 e k, within the basins of goal of the experiment. Mainly long-term period of the
Kychovä and Zdechovka, Javornik Mts. At the begin research had made possible to understand better the ining
of fifties of the last century, the interest in the manater-
relations, and their application in forest development
gement measures, supporting forest water function, was (e.g. rotation period). However, the problem is too comincreased.
Thanks to Marana and Zeleny the new expeplicated,
and unambiguous conclusions can be hardly
rimental objects have been installed in Moravskoslezske expected. Measuring has to go on and the data are to be
Beskydy (Moravian-Silesian part of the Beskydy Moundeeply
analysed. We need better, in more detail, understains).
It is the basin of Mala Räztoka (MR - 2.08 km2) tand which elements and their changes and relations, are
and Červik (CE - 1.85 km2). Research, initiated there in the most important for the precipitation-run-off process
November 1, 1954, is still on going, the time exceeding in forest stands.


EXPERIMENTAL BASINS OF CE AND MR


The experimental basin of CE is situated in so calresearch
purpose, the method of the pair basins was
led Zadni hory (Back-side Mts.) of Moravskoslezske used. After 1965, part A was fastly reforested by the
Beskydy, over the water reservoir Šance, at the altitude strip cutting, part B was left as a control, with no intenof
640 - 960 m over the sea level. The basin is 100 % tional felling, and natural regeneration.
forested, in the term of calibrating 85 % of conifers Experimental basin of MR is situated on the NW
was represented. The basin is naturally divided in two slopes of Beskydy, at the altitude of 602-1084 m over
parts, called CA (0.88 km2) and CB (0.84 km2). For the sea level. In 1953 - 1965 it was calibrated without


stand regeneration, since 1966 the stand was regenera


ted by the strip felling. During the regeneration in MR,


*
Ing. Zdenek Vicha, Forestry and Game Management Research beech was replaced by spruce, and the differences in Institute, Jilovište - Strnady, office Frydek - Mistck,
run-off were recorded. Detailed characteristics of the


Nadražni2811,CZ-738 01,
e-mail frydek.vulhm@mybox.cz two basins are presented in the Table.




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 17     <-- 17 -->        PDF

/ . Vicha: FIFTY YEARS OF THE FORESTRY HVDRO-PEDOLOGICAL RESEARCH WITHIN THE FOREST ... Šumarski list SUPLEMENT (2005). 7-16


RESULTS OF LONG-TERM RESEARCH IN BESKYDY MTS.


During the whole period of investigation within
the CE basin, the average year precipitation was
1122.4 mm, run-off 646.2 mm, average year flow was


20.5 1 x s"´ x km2. In MR basin the average year precipitation
was 1238.4 mm, run-off 912.0 mm, average
year flow 28.9 1 x s"1 x km2. In the graphs there are average
monthly precipitation and run-off in the period of
1954 to 2003. In Beskydy snow is melting in March to
May, the highest precipitation is during the summer
months.
Water balance in the forest stands, hydrologic ally
analysed in detail, is very complicated natural process.
It starts in measuring of individual rain, number of days
in between them, interception, evapotranspiration, soaking
of water in soil, run-off under different climatic
conditions, season, and natural conditions. In a strong
rain, part of water is soaked by the forest soils, smaller
part runs-off, mainly in plots of compacted and stabilised
soil surface. Volume of water soaked by forest soils
is limited. That is why aerial surface run-off can be observed,
when water is concentrated in trenches and water
runs. This type of water run-off represents about
15-20 % of the total amount in maximum, ant it is limited
to very short time. Higher percentage is represented
by fast surface run-off in flooding waves; its development
depends on saturation of the basin, volume and
length of rain, permeability and depth of the soils, slope
inclination, and the tendency to concentrate run-off water.
Retention capacity of the soil is confirmed also by
the data measured in Beskydy research: Rain intensity
over the whole period had hardly exceeded 2 mm per
minute, it means 33 nr of water per square km per second,
however. The highest specific run-off was measured
in MR q= 3,144 m3 x s~´ x km2. This data confirm
fast water retention by the forest soil.


Some really heavy, sudden rains in Beskydy have resulted
in fladdings. Also water culminations exceeding
1000 1 x s"´ x km", are of danger. During the investigation
such events were observed 9 times in MR, and 7 times
in CE. In MR the highest culmination recorded was
after the storm-rain in July 25, 1966, it was already mentioned
value of 3,144 1 x s"´ x km2. In CE the highest was
culmination of August 1, 1971 - 1,576.,2 1 x s"1 x km2. It
was found that for the culmination the level and intensity
of given precipitation is decisive. After the regeneration
of the mature stands increased number of culmination
flow was not proved statistically.


In heavy fladdings also branches, parts of the trees
etc. are flowing down with water stream. Than sluices,
bridges, and whole river and stream beds are filled
with that material, water gets out of the banks and the
land around can be damaged.


To evaluate the small and minimal water runs during
the dry period of the year is also useful. Measuring has
proved, that such periods are repeated during a year more
frequently then fladdings, irregularly, depending on
air temperature. They arc lasting mostly several days, as
usual; the time is longer in winter, even two months. During
the 50 years of measuring the minimal run-off was
reaching up to qm}n< 0,5 1 x s ´ x km2, endangering not
only the water bio-system, but also water reservoirs in
the villages in lower part of the mountains.


As mentioned above, in the basin of CE investigation
of the run-off water was done within the two pair
basins. The research was focused on the problem,
whether the different ways of management, and connected
different age structure of the stands in the two
basins, can be reflected by run-off regime. Evaluating
the results of long-term investigation, it can be stated
that provable change of the run-off conditions was not
observed. Forest regeneration was not connected with
the reduction of run-off water, and the older stands left,
of higher timber supply, did not show higher run-off.
However, it is to be stressed, that in spite of the fact
that not significant changes in run-off regime were observed
in the stand managed by intensive way of clear-
cutting, more sensitive, nature close ways of forest management
bring also other advantages, also in water regime.
Forest soil is not eroded due to damage by heavy
logging mechanisation, soil infiltration capacity is not
disturbed, so under-surface water run-off is supported.
Also area of bare land, and connected soil erosion after
heavy rains, is not that big. This is mainly problem of
poor sites, of insufficient vegetation cover, where soil
is not covered by grass and weed. The two plots in Beskydy
are moderately rich sites, and after felling the soil
is covered by grass during several weeks, and thus protected
against water erosion. In spite of the fact that negative
impact of clear cutting, within the extent given
by the law, on water run-off was not proved, other advantages
of the nature close management have to be
stressed. It is mainly bio-diversity preservation, higher
stability of the ecosystem, preservation of genetically
valuable material of autochthonous stands, and also
higher esthetical and recreation value of forests.


More important changes in run-off conditions were
observed in the MR basin, where the main tree species beech
was replaced by spruce in the regeneration process.
During the years of low precipitation, water runoff
was higher there. It means that in the warm period of
the year water run-off is higher, in the cold period runoff
is higher in the years of higher precipitation. Mainly
melting snow causes higher run-off in the cold period,
richer in precipitation- after stand regeneration more
water of it runs-off. It can be said that change of spruce




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 16     <-- 16 -->        PDF

Z. Vicha: FIFTY YEARS Ol" THE FORESTRY HYDRO-PFDOLOGICAL RESEARCH WITHIN THE FOREST ... Šumarski list - SLJPLEMENT (2005). 7-16
METOD OF RESEARCH WITHIN THE TWO BASINS


Research within the basins of MR and CE is based
on evaluating of the forest management measures with
respect to the run-off, and water balance. Basic forest
state, orographic and stand conditions, different in the
two basins, are considered.


Total volume felled within the two basins (Tabs. 1,
2) shows, that felling was intensively motivated by the
research aims by the end of seventies. In eighties, after
hard damage by air pollution, mainly in the exposed
slope and ridge part of the basin MR, felling was nearly
stopped. Fast regeneration in CE basin was also closed,
and it was limited only to the most important forestry
measures, in spite of the fact that damage by air
pollution was not that heavy in this basin. However, the
aim of the research was not affected, as the regeneration
was in such a state that the run-off could be affected
by its results in measurable way.


In both experimental basins the precipitation and
run-off characteristics, same as other meteorological
values, are measured by classic methods, newly completed
by digital methods of measuring. Thus the informative
value of the data was improved, mainly for the
extreme hydrological situations. Nevertheless, the
classic methods are still important data source, and
they can be used to complete or correct the data measured
digitally, and they also help in case of the digital
equipment failure.


To measure meteorological values, meteo-stations
have been installed within the basins, controlled daily
by the observers. The stations are equipped by classic
case with normal thermometer, wet thermometer, and
thermometer for measuring of maximum and minimum
temperature. Also the length of sunshine is recorded.


Measuring of precipitation is of importance, done
in more detail than the routine in climatology. In each
basin four totalisers are installed, three of them in water
divide, one in the valley, in centre of the basin. Total
precipitation is measured on monthly base. Precipitations
in time are recorded by pluvial-graphs on weekly
base, giving important data on floods and their analyzing.
The station precipitation meters verify reliability
of measuring. In winter the layer of new snow is measured,
total snow cover and its water value. Monthly
total precipitation of the basins is calculated using the
polygon method by Horton-Thiesson.


Water run-off is measured in the concrete measuring
funnels with limnigraphic manhole (shaft). They
are equipped with limnigraphs OTT of week regime.
Water level on the scale, and water temperature are measured
daily by the observer. Run-off is evaluated on
the base of consumption curves, the values are verified
repeatedly. Minimal flow is measured in 50 litre calibrated
container, under the wire of funnels.


There are three funnels in the CE basin, measuring
independently run-off of the two parts of the basin, and
also run-off down the confluence.
More detailed information on digital measuring:


The 16-channel registration unit M4016, supplied
by accumulator, is the base of the monitoring station
MS 16.


The registration unit makes possible to connect all
types of measuring sensors of standard. All common
sensors with standard, current, frequency or pulse output
can be connected to the unit. A number of ultrasonic
and electrochemical probes with digital output can
thus be connected to the unit, of digital output of data
measured. Communication to the unit is done by the
MOST programmes, and the actualised version of
MOST 32, respective. The programmes transfer the data
to the notebook, state the parameters of data measuring
and storing, and data processing, using table and
graph outputs.


To measure water level in the open funnels, the ultra-
sound probes are used, US 3000. Microprocessor in
it is calculating the distance on the base of the time interval
of the ultra-sound impulse sent and its reflection,
corrected on the base of air temperature. Basic resolution
of the probe is 1 mm.


Air temperature is measured by platinum resistance
thermometer Pt 100 with a flow transferor in the in the
head. To measure absolute air moisture capacity sensor
with flow output is used. Thermometer ans moisture
sensor are protected by radiation cover, and they are
placed in the mast, in a height of 2 m above soil surface.
Water temperature is also measured by platinum
thermometer Pt 100. The whole complex is packed in
silicone, so it can be placed in water.


To measure volume and intensity of precipitation,
meters type SR02 are used, of catching area of 200 cm2.
Precipitation meter is connected to the pulse input of the
registration unit. This registers, in one of the channels,
volume of precipitation, within the time period given by
the set interval of data storing by the unit. Principle of
the use of precipitation meter is based on the mechanism
of dumping boat, divided in two parts, to get the electric
pulses, depending on precipitation intensity. The rain
comes through the opening of strictly given area, directly
to a funnel, and it goes to the upper part of a boat.
Where the upper part is filled by adjustable volume of
precipitation, the boat dumps. This half of the boat is
empted, and the other half gets under the funnel. This
process is on going by the end of rain. Magnet, fixed in
the boat body, in each dumping connects the contact,
placed in the boat stick. This connection, depending on
flow of defined precipitation volume, makes possible to
register number of dumps and so precipitation volume.




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 14     <-- 14 -->        PDF

Z. Vicha: PEDESET GODINA ŠUMARSKOG HIDRO-PEDOLOŠKOG ISTRAŽIVANJA U ŠUMSKIM ... Šumarski list - SUPLEMENT (2005), 7-16
ekološkog gospodarenja. To su uglavnom očuvanje
bioraznolikosti, veća stabilnost ekosustava, očuvanje
genetski vrijednog materijala autohtonih sastojina, te
veća estetska i rekreacijska vrijednost šuma.


Važnije promjene u uvjetima otjecanja primijećene
su u bazenu MR, gdje je glavna vrsta drveća, bukva,
zamijenjena smrekom u procesu obnove. Tijekom godina
niskih oborina, otjecanje vode je tamo bilo veće.
To znači da je u toplim razdobljima godine otjecanje
bilo veće, a u hladnim je veće u godinama velikih obo


ZAKLJUČAK I PRAK
Conclusion and practi


Prirodni retencijski kapacitet šuma je ograničen. Pod
najintenzivnijim oborinama čak i prirodne šumske sastojine
nisu u stanju spriječiti poplavu. U šumskim gospodarenjima
preporučuje se stvoriti odgovarajući sastav
vrsta i uravnotežen dobni sastav. U šumskoj obnovi
važno je stabilizirati nove kulture na vrijeme, te očuvati
odgovarajuće kvalitete šumskog tla s visokim kapacitetom
infiltracije. U šumskoj njezi treba podržavati uglavnom
otpornost mladih sastojina protiv štete od biotskih i
abiotskih uzročnika, kako bi se spriječilo njihovo narušavanje
i očuvao njihov kapacitet pozitivnog utjecaja
na hidrološki režim. Dobro planirane šumske ceste i tehnološke
linije trebaju uzimati u obzir otjecanje nagomi-


LITERATURA


Biba, M. et ah, 2001: Vliv hospodareni v lesich na


tvorbu odtoku a kvality vody v zalesnenych po


vodich v kontextu komplexni protipovodfiove


ochrany krajiny. Zäverecnä zpräva projektu EP


9090, VÜLHM Jilovište - Strnady.
Biba, M, A. Chlebek, M. Jarabač, J. Jirik,


2001: Les a voda - 45 let trväni vodohospodär


skeho vyzkumu v Beskydech. Zpr. Lesn. Vyzk.,


46: 231-238, ISSN 0322-9688.
rina. Topljenje snijega uglavnom uzrokuje veliko otjecanje
u hladnim razdobljima, bogatijim oborinama nakon
obnove sastojina više vode otječe. Može se reći,
daje zamjena bukve smrekom od velike važnosti, s obzirom
na otjecanje vode, nego različiti načini gospodarenja.
Evapotranspiracija je snižena, najvjerojatnije
zbog niskog kapaciteta piitkijeg korjenskog sustava
smreke, s obzirom na uporabu oborinske vode infiltrirane
u dubljim horizontima, što rezultira povećanim
minimalnim otjecanjem.


riCNE PREPORUKE
;al recommendations


lane oborinske vode u tim horizontalnim objektima.
Važna je i kontrola bujica izvedena na pravilan ekološki
način. Cilj je spriječiti eroziju koja pogoršava utjecaj
poplavnog vala u donjim dijelovim vodotokova. Sastojine
blizu vode trebaju se održavati, a vrste jakog korjenskog
sustava što fiksiraju riječne obale i odupiru se
ekstremnim vodama treba održavati.


Jasno je da takav blag pristup može biti lakše osiguran
gospodarenjem na malim površinama na ekološki
način. S gledišta važnijih šumskih funkcija, takvo gospodarenje
ima mnoge druge prednosti, uglavnom u područjima
izvora i planinskih vodotokova.


- References
Biba, M., A. Chlebek, M. Jarabač, J. Jirik,


2002: Lesnicko.hydrologicky vyzkum v Besky


däch v roče 2001, Beskydy, MZLU v Brnc, 15:


25-30.


Biba, M., M. Jarabač, Z. Vicha, 2003: Minimalni


odtoky z Beskydskych experimentälnich povodi


v letech 1954 až 2003, Beskydy, MZLU v Brne,


17:23-28.




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 13     <-- 13 -->        PDF

Z. Vicha: PEDESET GODINA ŠUMARSKOG HIDRO-PEDOLOŠKOG ISTRAŽIVANJA U ŠUMSKIM Šumarski list - SUPLEMENT (2005), 7-16
XI XII I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X


mjesec -month
Slika 4. Červik - prosječne mjesečne oborine i otjecanje 1954 - 2003.


Figure 4 Červik -average monthly precipitation and run-off in 1954 -2003


Hs
DHo


XI XII I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X


mjesec -month


Slika 3. MaläRäztoka- prosječne mjesečne oborine i otjecanje 1954-2003.


Figure 3 Mala Räztoka -average monthly precipitation and run-off in 1954 -2003


Kao što je več rečeno, u bazenu CE istraživanje ima druge prednosti, također za vodni režim. Šumsko
otjecanja izvedeno je unutar dva bazena. Fokus je bio tlo ne erodira uslijed oštećenja teškom mehanizacijom,
na pitanju: jesu li različiti načini gospodarenja i s time infiltracijska sposobnost tla nije narušena, pa otjecanje
povezane različite dobne strukture sastojina utjecali na vode ispod površine nije narušeno. I površine golog
režim otjecanja? Vrednovanje rezultata dugoročnog iszemljišta
nakon velikih kiša nisu ugrožene erozijom.
traživanja dovodi do zaključka da nisu opažene dokaTo
je uglavnom problem slabih površina s nedovoljnim
zive promjene uvjeta otjecanja. Šumska obnova nije vegetacijskim pokrovom, gdje tlo nije pokriveno trabila
povezana s redukcijom otjecane vode, a preostale vom i korovom. Predmetne površine u Beskydima umstarije
sastojine s većom drvnom zalihom nisu pokazajereno
su bogata zemljišta, a nakon sječe tlo je pokrivele
veće otjecanje. Međutim, mora se naglasiti da unano
travom već nakon nekoliko tjedana, što štiti protiv
toč činjenici da nisu opažene signifikantne promjene u erozije. Unatoč činjenici da negativni utjecaji čiste
režimu otjecanja u sastojini gospodarenoj intenzivnom sječe u razmjerima dozvoljenim zakonom nisu dokazačistom
sječom, blaže, prirodi prikladnije gospodarenje ni pri otjecanju vode, treba naglasiti ostale prednosti




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 12     <-- 12 -->        PDF

Z. Vicha: PEDESET GODINA ŠUMARSKOG HIDRO-PEDOLOŠKOG ISTRAŽIVANJA U ŠUMSKIM Šumarski list - SUPLEMENT (2005), 7-16
Slika 1. Červik-sječa (nv)


Figure 1 Červik - timber felling (m )


Slika 2. Mala Raztoka-sječa (m3)


Figure 2 Mala Raztoka - timber felling (m )


kulminacija bila 1. kolovoza 1971. : 1.576,2 1 x s ´ x km2.
Ustanovljeno je da su za kulminaciju odlučni razina i
intenzitet danih oborina. Nakon obnove zrelih sastojina,
povećani protok broja kulminacija nije dokazan
statistički.


U teškim poplavama grane i drveće također teku niz
vodenu struju. Pritom su brane, mostovi i čitava riječna
i potočna korita napunjena takvim materijalom, a voda
izlazi preko obala, pa okolno zemljište može biti
oštećeno.


Vrednovanje malih i minimalnih vodotokova tijekom
suhog razdoblja godine također je korisno. Mjerenje
je dokazalo da su takva razdoblja češća od poplava,
ovisno o temperaturi zraka. Ona traju najviše nekoliko
dana. Ta razdoblja su dulja zimi, čak po dva mjeseca.
Tijekom 50-godišnjeg mjerenja minimalna su otjecanja
iznosila do qmin<0,5 1 . s"´x km2, ugrožavajući ne samo
vodni biosustav, nego i vodne rezervoare u selima
podno planina.




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 11     <-- 11 -->        PDF

Z. Vicha: PEDESET GODINA ŠUMARSKOG IIIDRO-PEDOLOSKOG ISTRAŽIVANJA U ŠUMSKIM Šumarski list - SUPLEMENT (2005), 7-16
Mjerenje oborina je važno, radi se s više detalja nego
rutinski u klimatologiji. U svakom je slivu instalirano
četiri totalizera, tri na vodnoj granici, jedan u dolini,
u središtu bazena. Ukupne oborine mjere se mjesečno.
Oborine se bilježe pluvijalnim grafikonima tjedno, s
važnim podacima o poplavama i njihovom analizom.
Mjerači oborina u stanici verificiraju pouzdanost mjerenja.
Zimi se mjeri sloj novog snijega, ukupni sniježni
pokrov i njegova vodna vrijednost. Mjesečne ukupne
oborine slivova izračunavaju se primjenom poligonske
metode Horton-Thiesson. Vodno se otjecanje mjeri u
betonskim mjernim lijevcima s limnigrafskim šahtom.
Ovi su opremljeni s limnigrafima OTT tjednog režima.
Promatrači dnevno mjere razinu vode i temperaturu.
Otjecanje se vrednuje na temelju potrošnih krivulja, a
vrijednosti se opetovano verificiraju. Minimalni protok
mjeri se u 50-litarskom kalibriranom kontejneru, ispod
žice lijevaka.


Tri lijevka u slivu CE mjere nezavisno otjecanje
dvaju dijelova bazena, a također i otjecanje niz pritoku.
Detaljniji podaci o digitalnom mjerenju:


Registracijski blok M4016 sa 16 kanala opremljen s
akumulatorom osnova je opservacijske stanice MS 16.
Registracijski blok omogućuje povezivanje svih standardnih
tipova mjernih senzora. Svi uobičajeni senzori
sa standardnom, tekućom frekvencijom ili pulsnim
outputom mogu se priključiti na blok. Nekoliko ultrasoničnih
i clektrokemijskih pokusa s digitalnim outputom
mogu se na taj način priključiti na blok. Povezanost
s blokom izvodi se s programima MOST, te aktualnom
verzijom MOST 32. Programi prenose podatke
u radnu knjigu, konstatiraju parametre mjerenja, poh


rane podataka i obrade podataka uz uporabu outputa iz
tablica i grafikona.


Za mjerenje razine vode u otvorenim lijevcima, primijenjuju
se ultrasonične probe US 3000. Mikroprocesor
izračunava razdaljinu na temelju vremenskog intervala
poslanog ultrasoničnog impulsa i njegovog odraza,
korigiranog na temelju temperature zraka. Bazna
rezolucija probe je 1 mm.


Zračna temperatura mjeri se termometrom platinske
rezistencije Pt 100 s tekućim prijenosnikom u gla


vi. Za mjerenje kapaciteta zračne vlage rabi se senzor s
tekućim outputom. Termometer i senzor vlage zaštićeni
su radijacijskim pokrovom, a postavljeni su na jarbol
visine 2 m iznad tla. Temperatura zraka također se
mjeri platinskim termometrom Pt 100. Čitav kompleks
priključen je na pulsni input registracijskog bloka.
Ovaj registrira, u jednom od kanala, volumen oborina
unutar vremenskog razdoblja postavljenog intervala
pohrane podataka u bloku. Načelo uporabe mjerača
oborina temelji se na mehanizmu čamca (dumping
boat) podijeljenom u dva dijela, kako bi se dobili električni
impulsi, ovisno o intenzitetu oborina. Kiša prolazi
kroz otvor strogo određenog područja, izravno u lijevak,
te nastavlja do gornjeg dijela čamca. Kada se gornji
dio napuni određenom masom oborine, čamac se
prevrne. Polovina čamca se isprazni, a druga polovina
dospije pod lijevak. Ovaj se proces nastavlja do prestanka
kiše. Magnet pričvršćen na tijelo čamca dovodi
do kontakta pri svakom prevrtanju. Ovaj kontakt, ovisno
o protoku oborine, omogućava registriranje broja
prevrtanja, a time i volumen oborine.
REZULTATI DUGOROČNOG ISTRAŽIVANJA U PLANINAMA BESKYDY
Results of long-term research in Beskydy Mts.


Tijekom čitavog razdoblja istraživanja u bazenu
CE, prosječna godišja oborina bila je 1122,4 mm,
otjecanje 646,2 mm, prosječan godišnji protok bio je
20,5 1. s"´x km2. U bazenu MR prosječna godišnja oborina
bila je 1.238,4mm, otjecanje 912 mm, prosječan
godišnji protok 28,9 1 s" -1 x km2. U grafikonima su
prikazane prosječne mjesečne oborine i otjecanje u
razdoblju 1954 - 2003. U Beskydima snijeg se topi od
ožujka do svibnja, a najviše oborina padne za vrijeme
ljetnih mjeseci.


Detaljna analiza vodne ravnoteže u šumskim sastojinama
vrlo je složen prirodni proces. Počinje mjerenjem
pojedinih kiša, broja dana među njima, intercepcije,
evapotranspiracije, natapanja vode u tlu, otjecanja
pod različitim klimatskim uvjetima, sezone i prirodnih
uvjeta. Pri jakoj kiši dio se vode natopi u šumskom tlu,
manji dio otječe, uglavnom u zemljišta nabijene i stabilizirane
površine. Volumen vode upijen u šumskom tlu


ograničen je. To je razlog što se površinsko otjecanje
može promatrati kada je voda koncentrirana u rovovima
i vodotokovima. Ovaj tip otjecanja ima udjel od
15-20 % ukupne maksimalne količine, i ograničenje
na vrlo kratko vrijeme. Veći postotak je onaj brzog
površinskog otjecanja u poplavnim valovima; retencijski
kapacitet tijekom čitavog razdoblja jedva je prelazio
2mm u minuti, što znači 33 m3 vode po kvadratnom
kilometru u sekundi. Najveće specifično otjecanje bilo
je izmjereno u MR : q = 3.144m3 x s" . km". Ovi podaci
podvrđuju brzu vodnu retenciju šumskog tla.


Zaista velike, iznenadne kiše u Beskydima rezultirale
su poplavama. Opasne su i vodne kulminacije što
prelaze 1000 . s"1 x km2. Za vrijeme istraživanja, takvi
su događaji primijećeni devet puta u MR i sedam puta
u CE. U MR je najviša kulminacija zabilježena nakon
bujice izazvane kišom 25. srpnja 1966 s već spomenutom
vrijednosti od 3.144 1 s~´ x km2. U CE je najveća




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 10     <-- 10 -->        PDF

Z. Vicha: PEDESET GODINA ŠUMARSKOG H1DRO-PEDOLOSKOG ISTRAŽIVANJA U ŠUMSKIM Šumarski list SUPLEMENT (2005), 7-16
METODA ISTRAŽIVANJA UNUTAR DVAJU BAZENA
Metod of research within the two basins


Istraživanje u bazenima MR i CE temelje se na vrednovanju
šumsko-gospodarstvenih mjera s obzirom na
otjecanje i vodnu ravnotežu. Uzimaju se u obzir osnovno
stanje šume, orografski i sastojinski uvjeti, različiti
za dva bazena.


Ukupni posječeni volumen u dva bazena (Tablice 1,
2) pokazuju, daje sječa bila intenzivno motivirana s ciljevima
istraživanja krajem sedamdesetih godina. U
osamdesetim godinama, nakon teške štete zračnim zagađenjem,
uglavnom na izloženim padinama i grebenskom
dijelu bazena MR, sječa je gotovo stala. Brza
obnova u bazenu CE također je zaustavljena, te je ograničena
samo na najvažnije šumarske mjere, unatoč
činjenici da šteta uzrokovana zračnim zagađenjem nije
bila tako teška u ovom bazenu. Međutim, to nije utjecalo
na cilj istraživanja, jer je obnova bila u takvom stanju
da su rezultati obnove mogli utjecati na otjecanje.


Tablica 1. Karakteristike pokusnih bazena


Table 1 Characteristics of experimental basins


Osnovna geografska obilježja -Coordinates


Sj. zemljopisna širina -North latitude


Površina u km" -Area


Nadmorska visina od m -Altitude


do m


Srednja nadmorska visina um - Mean alt.


Inklinacija -Incline


Ekspozicija glavnih vodotoka -Prevailing water run expositionDužina vodotoka - Lenght of the water run
Nadmorska visina izvora - Source alt.
Inklinacija vodotoka u % - Incline of the water run
Sumovitost bazena u % -Forestation of the basin


Geološka podloga -Mother rock


Mehanički tip tla -Mechanical soil type


Zastupljenost vrste u % - Tree species representation
Smreka -Spruce
Jela -Fir
Bukva -Beech
Ostale listače -Other broadleaves


U oba pokusna bazena karakteristike oborina i otjecanja,
jednako kao i ostale meteorološke vrijednosti,
mjere se klasičnim metodama, nedavno izrađenim digitalnim
metodama mjerenja. Na taj je način informativna
vrijednost podataka poboljšana, uglavnom za ekstremne
hidrološke situacije. Ipak, klasične metode su još uvijek
važan izvor podataka, te se mogu rabiti za dopunjavanje
ili ispravljanje digitalno mjerenih podataka, a isto tako
pomažu u slučaju kvara digitalne opreme.


Za mjerenje meteoroloških vrijednosti, instalirane su
meteo-stanice unutar slivova, te ih promatrači dnevno
kontroliraju. Stanice su opremljene klasičnom kutijom s
normalnim termometrom, vlažnim termometrom, i termometrom
za mjerenje maksimalnih i minimalnih temperatura.
Također se bilježi duljina trajanja sunčane


svjetlosti.


Červi´k


18°23´
49° 27´
1,85
640
960
800
30
Sjeveroistok/M:.
1945
900
13.9
100
Pješčanik/


Godulic sand-stone


škriljevci/.vtae
pijesak-glinaAvanJ-c/ay
ilovača//oa/mV


74,7
0,3
24,6
0,4


Zastupljenost vrsta po volumenu u % - Species representation by volume
Smreka Spruce
93,8
Jela -Fir 0,5
Bukva Beech
5,6
Ostale listače -Other broadleaves 0,1
Prosječna starost - A verage age 47
Drvna zaliha po 1 ha u m Timber
supply 233
Prosječna godišnja temperatura °C - Average year temperature 6,2
Pros. god. količina oborina u mm - Average year precipitation 1122,4


Mala Räztoka


18° 15´
49° 30´
2,076
602
1084
840
50
Sjeverozapad/AW.
2000
962
22,8
100


Pješčanik/


Godulic sand-stone


ilovasti pijesak/


loam i sand


56,4
0
35,8
7,8


35,8
0,2
59,1
4,9
51
160
6,9
1238,4




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 9     <-- 9 -->        PDF

IZLAGANJE NA ZNANSTVENOM SKUPU PRESENTATION AT THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM Šumarski list SUPLEMENT (2005). 7-16
UDK 630* 116


PEDESET GODINA ŠUMARSKOG HIDRO-PEDOLOŠKOG ISTRAŽIVANJA
U ŠUMSKIM BAZENIMA PLANINSKIH VODOTOKA


FIFTY YEARS OF FORESTRY HYDRO-PEDOLOGICAL RESEARCH
WITHIN THE FOREST BASINS OF MOUNTAIN WATER RUNS


Zdenek VICHA*


SAŽETAK: Na dan 31. 10. 2003. godine završeno je pedesetogodišnje mjerenje
hidroloških i klimatskih podataka u dvama pokusnim bazenima Cervik
(CE) i Mala Raztoka (MR) u planinama Beskydy. Istraživanje je imalo za cilj
procijeniti odnos između oborina i otjecanja kao elemenata vodne ravnoteže
u malim šumskim slivovima. Pokus pokazuje da odnos između oborina i otjecanja
u malim šumskim planinskim slivovima ovisi više o prirodnim elementima
nego o metodama gospodarenja šumom. Šumska tla važni su elementi u
hidrološkom režimu slivova s kvalitetama infiltracije i retencije. Željeli bismo
predstaviti učinkovite prijedloge za gospodarenje šumama, koji se mogu zahvaljujući
dugotrajnosti istraživanja vezati za, na primjer, ophodnju šume.


UVOD - Introduction


Mjerenje, vrednovanje i modeliranje odnosa oborieksperimenta.
Mjerenje i vrednovanje odnosa oborina i
na - otjecanja u šumovitim planinskim slivovima ima otjecanja u malim šumskim bazenima, te utjecaj na podugu
tradiciju u mnogim zemljama. U Cehoslovačkoj jedine komponente šumskog gospodarenja osnovni je
je već 1928. Mr. Välek započeo šumarsko-hidrolo-cilj toga pokusa. Dugoročno je razdoblje pokusa omoško
mjerenje u bazenima Kychovä i Zdechovka u plagućilo
bolje razumijevanje međuodnosa te njihovu prininama
Javornik. Početkom pedesetih godina prošloga mjenu u šumskom razvoju (npr. razdoblje ophodnje).
stoljeća povećalo se zanimanje za gospodarske mjere, Međutim, problem je suviše složen, pa se nedvosmislešto
podupiru vodne funkcije. Novi pokusni objekti poni
zaključci teško mogu očekivati. Mjerenje treba nasstavljeni
su u Moravskoslezske Beskydy. Radi se o slitaviti,
a podaci se moraju temeljito analizirati. Moramo
vu Mala Räztoka (2,08 km2) i Červik (1,85 km2). Isbolje
i detaljnije razumijeti koji su elementi i njihove


traživanje započeto 1. studenog 1954. još uvijek traje, promjene/odnosi najvažniji za proces oborina-otjecašto
je u svjetskim razmjerima najdulje trajanje nekog nja u šumskim sastojinama.


POKUSNI SLIVOVI CE I MR - Experimental basms of CE and MR


Eksperimentalni sliv CE smješten je u Zadni hory istraživanja primijenjena je metoda dvaju bazena. NaMoravskoslezske
Beskydy, iznad vodnog rezervoara kon 1965, dio A je brzo pošumljen sječom u prugama,
Šance, na visini 640-960 m iznad morske razine. Baa
dio B ostavljen je kao kontrola, bez namjerne sječe,
zeni su 100 % pod šumom, u procjeni predstavljeni s te s prirodnom obnovom.
85 % četinjača. Bazen je prirodno podijeljen u dva Pokusni bazen MR nalazi se na sjeverozapadnim padijela,
CA (0,88 % km2) i CB (0,84 km2". U svrhu dinama Beskyda, na visini 602 m - 1084 m iznad mora.


Između 1953. i 1965. predviđen je bez sastojinske ob


nove, a od 1966. sastojina je obnovljena sječom u pru


gama. Tijekom obnove u MR bukva je zamijenjena


* Ing. Zdenek Vicha, UJLHM Jilovište - Strnady,
smrekom, a razlike u otjecanju su bilježene. Detaljne


Ured Frydck - Mistek, Nadražni 2811, CZ - 738 01,


karakteristike dvaju bazena predstavljene su u Tablici.


e-mail frydek.vulhm@mybox.cz