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ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 41     <-- 41 -->        PDF

P. Kantor: POSSIBILITIES OF MOUNTAIN FORESTS IN REDUCING HIGH WATERS AND FLOODS Šumarski list SUPLEMENT (2005), 31-39
2.
From the aspect of ecological stability and safety of
yield and production, one of evident priorities of forestry
is the transformation of spruce monocultures
to mixed stands. However, research results have
proved, that the increased proportion of broadleaves
cannot decrease the danger of high waters and
floods. Broadleaved species are able to retain and
draw less precipitation water than coniferous species
(particularly spruce) with respect to their leafless
state out of the growing season and smaller
biomass of assimilatory organs.
3.
Upland and mountain forests (unlike all non-forest
ecosystems) reduce very easily rainstorms up to 50
mm. Uninterrupted precipitation up to 100 mm manifests
itself in the total amount of runoff from the
forest but from the aspect of water-management effectiveness
is still acceptable. A threshold of 150 to
200 mm of uninterrupted precipitation can be considered
to be a critical limit for the effective reduction
of floods by the forest. Under conditions of this precipitation
total, forest soil is always completely saturated
by water including depressions both in the
soil surface and the parent rock stratum. Then, uncontrolled
and spontaneous runoff occurs through
the whole soil profile appearing often on the soil
surface irrespective of a species composition or the
method of management. In other words, also the forest
soil body shows, similarly as eg reservoirs, its
capacity possibilities which cannot be exceeded.




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 38     <-- 38 -->        PDF

PRESENTATION ATTHE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
Šumarski list - SUPLEMENT (2005). 31-39


POSSIBILITIES OF MOUNTAIN FORESTS IN REDUCING
HIGH WATERS AND FLOODS


Petr KANTOR


SUMMARY: In the course of recent 8 years, the Czech Republic was affected
by three disastrous floods (July 1997, July 1998 and August 2002) induced
by extremely high precipitation particularly in mountain forested locations
of our country. The critique of causes and consequences of the devastating
flood situations in media did not avoid even forestry. Negative effects of
forest management on the intensity and extent of floods have been particularly
related to high reproduction cutting and unsuitable species composition of
our forests. The paper presented summarizes and comments findings obtained
from permanent experimental plots in the Orlicke hory Mts. On the example
of an uninterrupted series since 1977, water regime is comprehensively studied
of two main species of our mountain forests, viz spruce and beech. Data
are also available from all three floods. Results of the study unambiguously
show that spruce and beech forests effectively mitigate continuous precipitation
up to 100 mm. However, in precipitation exceeding 150 mm, the soil pro


file is quite saturated with water Then, uncontrolled and spontaneous runoff


occurs through the whole profile irrespective of the species composition of fo


rests or methods of regeneration.


INTRODUCTION


Forests occupy about 34 % of the area of the Czech spruce is usually presented in public media as a species
Republic. More than 50 % of precipitation falls on the which is unsuitable from the viewpoint of water manaforests.
It is not because forests "attract" water but simgement.
On the other hand, broadleaves are presented as
ply because upland and mountain locations with high species which can significantly contribute to the reducannual
precipitation totals amounting to 800 - 1500 mm tion of floods due to their high consumption of water.
show the highest forest percentage in our country. However, generally it refers to unsubstantiated opinions


and hypotheses lacking an actual evidence.


In the introduction of the paper it is necessary to
mention that during the last 200 years, the species comWhat
is a reality - is it possible to answer professioposition
of our forests has been markedly changed. nally a question indicated in the title of the paper?
While in the natural species composition, the percentage First, it is necessary to mention that it refers to an exof
conifers was only 34 % (of this Norway spruce 11 %), tremely complicated sphere of problems dealt with by
at present, their proportion is more than twofold, viz forest research for a period of more than 100 years.
77 % (of this Norway spruce 54 %). At the same time,


A BRIEF VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF
WATER-MANAGEMENT FOREST RESEARCH


The first systematic measurements of some pararied
out by Krutsch in the German Tharandt as early as
meters of the water regime of forest stands were car-1863(Delfs 1955).
However, an internationally famous paper of E n


*
Prof. Ing. Petr Kantor, CSc, Department of Forest Estagier
(1919) is cited even at present. In the study, wablishment
and Silviculture FFWT, MUAF in Brno, Zemedelska
ter regime and the course of runoff are compared in an


3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
e-mail: kantor@mendelu.cz


unwooded and in a forested small watershed in the




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 35     <-- 35 -->        PDF

P. Kantor: ULOGA PLANINSKIH ŠUMA U REDUKCIJI VISOKIH VODA I POPLAVA Šumarski list - SUPLEMENT (2005). 31-39
loge. Ako je matični sloj nepropusan, infiltrirana se voPod
običnim režimom oborina, vodu iz tla poteže
da mijenja u podpovršinsko otjecanje. Ako je matični korijenje drveća, kako bi osiguralo svoje fiziološke
sloj pukotinastog tipa, voda prolazi u podzemnu vodu i procese (tran spi raciju). Intenzitet transpiracije u listača
postaje dio podzemnog otjecanja. obično je dva do pet puta viši nego u sastojinama četinjača.
S obzirom na značajno više vrijednosti biomase


1 upravo ovdje postoji bitna razlika u djelotvornosti


iglica smrekovih sastojina u usporedbi s biomasom lis


šumskog vodnog gospodarenja u usporedbi s poljopri


tinca bukove sastojine, razlike među transpiracijama


vrednim tlima, čiji je kapacitet infiltracije obično znat


četinjača i listača nisu obično zamijećene. To vrlo važ


no niži. Ni za vrijeme kišnih oluja ljeti 1997, 1998 i ko


no otkriće potvrđuju posebice njemačka proučavanja


lovoza 2002, površinsko otjecanje kod smreke i bukve


od prije 30 do 40 godina (Ladefoged 1963, Mits


nije bilo tako odlučujuće (Šach, Kantor, Cerno


cherlich 1971, Schmaltz 1969). Slično tomu, zre


h o u s 2000). I opet je potrebno spomenuti da se to u


le sastojine smreke i bukve u Orlicke hory konzumirale


danom slučaju odnosi na obično gospodarene šumske


su za ovaj oblik evaporacije istu količinu oborina, tj.


sastojine. Povećana površina otjecanja (iako općenito


prosječno 180 do 200 mm godišnje.


nije opasna) obično je opažena tek za vrijeme proljetnog
topljenja snijega u nemješovitim bukovim sastojiNa
kraju, određeni se dio vlage tla isparava neponama,
gdje zbijeni sloj lišća pokazuje niži kapacitet insredno
s površine -u našem se slučaju to odnosi na oko
filtracije nego smrekov listinac. Čak štoviše, intenzitet 80 mm godišnje u oba tipa sastojine.
topljenja u bukovim sastojinama bez lišća u sunčane je


Podaci o vodnom režimu smrekovih i bukovih sadane
čak za 30 % viši nego u zatvorenim smrekovim


stojinama na bilansnim plohama u Orlickć hory dani su
sastojinama.


u Tablici 1.


Tablica 1. Vodna bilanca smreke i bukve u planini Orlicke hory (900 m vis.) pri godišnjoj oborini od 1296 mm


Tahle 1 Water balance of spruce and beech in the Orlicke hory Mts. (900 m alt.) at an annualprecipitation of 1296 mm


Negativne komponente vodne bilance Površinsko Infiltracija do
Sastojina Negative components of water balance otjecanje matične podloge
Stand Intercepcija Transpiracija Evaporacija I + T+E Surface Infiltration to
Interception Transpiration Evaporation / + T+ E runoff parent rock
Obična smreka 212 mm 195 mm 84 mm 491 mm 13 mm 792 mm
Norway spruce 16.3% 15.1 % 6.5 % 37.9 % 1.0 % 61.1 %
Bukva 86 mm 181 mm 79 mm 346 mm 21 mm 929 mm
Beech 6.7 % 13.9% 6.1 % 26.7 % 1.6% 71.7%


Tako je evidentno da su šumki ekosustavi znatni potrošnju
vode u smrekovim sastojinama nego u bukovim
trošači oborinske vode. Osim nalaza iz Orlicke hory, svi sastojinama (vidi tablicu 2). Značajno viša intercepcija
drugi dostupni objavljeni izvori potvrđuju bitno višu posmrekovih
sastojina je glavni razlog ovih razlika.


Tablica 2. Vodna bilanca zrelih sastojina smreke i bukve


Table 2 Water balance of mature spruce and beech stands


Oborina na Smreka Spruce
Bukva Beech
Autor Author
otvorenom mm ukupna evaporacija otjecanje ukupna evaporacija otjecanje
Područje istraživanja Precipitation open mm % mm % mm % mm %
Region of research area total evaporation runoff total evaporation runoff
mm mm % mm % mm % mm %
Brechtel, Hoyningen582
81 554 109
Huene(1978) 663 88 12 84 16
FRG Frankfurt/
Main
Beneckc, van der Ploeg
(1978) FRG-Soiling 1066
616
58
450
42
515
48
551
52
Ambros(1978)
Slovačka, Karpati 1100
550
50
550
50
451
41
649
59
Zeleny (1971, 1974) smreka -spruce 1080 476 604 433 817
CR-Beskidi bukva beech\
250 44 56 35 65
Kantor (1984)
CR-Orlick e hory
1296
491
38
805
62
346
27
950
73


33




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 34     <-- 34 -->        PDF

P. Kantor: ULOGA PLANINSKIH SUMA U REDUKCIJI VISOKIH VODA I POPLAVA Šumarski list SUPLEMENT (2005). 31-39
proučavani su u šumovitom slivu rijeke Kychova, te u
nepošumljenom slivu rijeke Zdechovka (V ä 1 e k 1958,
1977).


Nakon II. Svjetskog rata, na temelju poticaja akademika
Marana i Lhote, istraživanje vodnog gospodarenja
koncentriralo se ne regiju Moravsko-silesijskih
Beskida. U neprekinutim serijama od 1953 (!) temeljni
problemi "šume i voda" proučavani su u dva potpuno
pošumljena djelomična sliva (sliv Mala Räztoka s autohtonim
uglavnom bukovim sastojinama, te sliv Červik s


autohthonim dominirajućim norveškim smrekama). Niz
beskonačno vrijednih nalaza iz terenskih eksperimentalnih
stanica nalazi se u člancima autora Z e 1 e n y (1971,
1974),.Iarabač iChlebek (1988, 1996).


Slično orijentirani programi istraživanja ustanovljeni
su u Njemačkoj, Švicarskoj, Rusiji i ostalim zemljama
(Brechtel, Hoyningen-Huene 1978, Benecke,
van der PI oeg 1978, M it scher 1 ich 1971,
Schmaltz 1969, itd.).


ZAJEDNICKI PROJEKT FAKULTETA ZA ŠUMARSTVO I DRVNU TEHNOLOGIJU,
MUAF U BRNU I ISTRAŽIVAČKE STANICE VULHM U OPOČNOM
A joint project of the faculty of forestry and wood technology,
MUAF in Brno and of the Vulhm research station in Opočno


Gore navedena problematika odnosa "šuma/voda"
proučava također jedan od istraživačkih programa Fakulteta
za šumarstvo i drvnu tehnologiju u Brnu u suradnji
s Istraživačkim institutom šumarstva i lovnog
gospodarstva, Istraživačka stanica u Opočnom. Projekt
pod naslovom "Planinski šumski ekosustavi i njihovo
gospodarenje s ciljem smanjenja poplava" ima trenutno
financijsku podršku Agencije za dotacije Republike
Čehoslovačke (Dotacija No 526/02/0851). Trajne istraživačke
plohe u katastru Deštne na planini Orlickć hory,
gdje se proučava vodni režim obiju vrsta planinskih


VODNI REŽIM SMREKE I BUKVE


Vodni režim šumskih ekosustava ponajprije je ovisan
o atmosferskim oborinama, šumskoj potrošnji vode
(tzv. sumarna evaporacija, tj. intercepcija + transpiracija
+ evaporacija iz tla) te promjenama u količini
vode u tlu.


Na taj se način temeljna jednadžba vodne bilance
može izraziti na sljedeći način:


0 = S-ITE±AVp..., gdje je:


O = otjecanje


S = oborine na otvorenom


1TE = ukupna evaporacija (1 = intercepcija;


T = transpiracija; E = evaporacija iz tla);


AVp = promjene u pritjecanju vode u tlo.


Tako je moguće ustanoviti koliko je vode isteklo iz
šume koja ju nije konzumirala za fizičku evpaoraciju
(intercepciju, evaporaciju iz tla), fiziološke potrebe
(transpiraciju) i nadomjestak vode u tlo.


Voda što ju konzumiraju šumske sastojine - ukupna
evaporacija odnosi se naravno na biomasu šumskih
ekosustava, posebice na količinu organa za asimilaciju.
To je uvijek znatno više u smrekovim sastojinama (u
stadiju šibljaka i sastojinama velikog promjera, prosječno
15 do 20 t suhog igličastog materijala po hektaru),
nego u bukovim sastojinama (prosječno 2 do 4 t


šuma, tj. norveške smreke i bukve u standardnoj komercijalnoj
šumi dio su projekta. Smreka je obično
predstavljena širokoj publici kao vrsta neprikladna sa
stajališta vodnog gospodarstva, dok bukva treba biti
vrsta s povoljnim vodogospodarstvenim djelovanjem.
Mjerenje svih parametara vodne ravnoteže šumskih
sastojina izvedena su u Deštne, u neprekinutoj seriji od
1977. Trenutno, 27-godišnja serija rezultata na raspolaganju
je, uključujući nalaze o poplavama bujica u srpnju
1997, srpnju 1998, te o posljednjoj poplavi na prijelazu
prve i druge dekade kolovoza 2002.


- Water regime of spruce and beech
suhog lisnatog materijala po hektaru, tj. samo tijekom
5 do 7 mjeseci sezone rasta).
Pogledajmo najprije jednostavno komparativni tijek
vodne bilance obaju tipova sastojine.


Od svake pojedine oborine jedan dio kojega prihvate
krošnje se kasnije ispari. S obzirom na gore spomenute
podatke, krune smreka prihvate bitno više oborina
nego krune bukvi. Ta je činjenica potvrđena u svim
eksperimentalnim studijama (Delfs 1955, Mitscherlich
1971, Schmaltz 1969, Välek 1958,
Zeleny 1974, itd.). U smrekovoj sastojini na Orlickć
hory prosječna je godišnja intercepcija dosegla 210
mm (16 % oborina), a u bukovoj sastojini samo 85 mm
(7 % oborina). Preostali dio oborina prolazi kroz krošnje
drveća na tlo, ili se pojavljuje kao slijevanje niz deblo.
Zanimljivo je da slijevanje niz zrela bukova stabla
doseže čak 1500 1 vode na oborine od 50 mm. Kod
smreke, međutim, slijevanje je bitno niže (uz oborine
od samo 30 do 50 1).


Nakon pada na šumsko tlo, oborinska se voda u
njega snažno infiltrira.Osim natapanja pora tla i zatim
iscijedivanja, infiltrirana voda prolazi kroz sustav vodnih
prolaza do matične podloge (vodovi u šumskom tlu
koje stvara korijenje drveća, životinje, itd.), teče dolje i
akumulira se u šupljinama i depresijama matične pod




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 33     <-- 33 -->        PDF

IZLAGANJE NA ZNANSTVENOM SKUPU - PRESENTATION AT THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM Šumarski list SUPLEMENT (2005). 31-39


UDK 630* 116


ULOGA PLANINSKIH SUMA U REDUKCIJI VISOKIH VODA I POPLAVA


POSSIBILITIES OF MOUNTAIN FORESTS IN REDUCING HIGH WATERS AND FLOODS


Petr KANTOR*


SAŽETAK: Tijekom posljednjih 8 godina, Republika Češka pretrpjela je tri
katasrofalne poplave (srpanj 1997. g., srpanj 1998. g. i kolovoz 2002. g.)
prouzročene izrazito obilnim oborinama, posebice u planinskim šumskim dijelovima
naše zemlje. Bespoštedne kritike uzroka i posljedica poražavajućih
poplava u medijima nisu zaobišle niti šumarstvo. Negativni utjecaj šumskog
gospodarenja na intenzitet i razmjer poplava posebice se ogleda u jakoj
oplodnoj sječi i neodgovarajućem omjeru vrsta u našim šumama. U ovom se
radu sažimaju i komentiraju rezultati dobiveni iz trajnih pokusnih ploha u
planinama Orlicke horv. Vodni režim smreke i bukve, dviju glavnih vrsta naših
planinskih šuma iscrpno se istražuje na primjeru neprekinute serije od


1977. g. Prikazuju se i rezultati za sve tri poplave. Rezultati istraživanja nedvojbeno
pokazuju da smrekove i bukove šume učinkovito ublažavaju neprekidne
oborine do 100 mm. Međutim, kod oborina iznad 150 mm, profil tla je
potpuno zasićen vodom, što dovodi do nekontroliranog i spontanog utjecanja
kroz cijeli profil, neovisno o omjeru smjese u šumama ili metodama obnove.


UVOD - Introduction
Šume zauzimaju oko 34 % površine Republike Če- predstavljena u javnim medijima kao vrsta neprikladna
hoslovačke. Preko 50 % oborina padne na šume. Raz- s gledišta vodnog gospodarstva. S druge strane, listače
log tomu nije činjenica da šume "privlače" vodu, već su predstavljene kao vrste koje značajno doprinose rejednostavno
to što visinske i planinske lokacije s viso- dukciji poplava zbog njihove velike potrošnje vode.
kim godišnjim oborinama od 800 do 1500 mm imaju Međutim, to se općenito odnosi na nedokazana mišljenajveći
postotak šuma u našoj zemlji. nja i hipoteze kojima nedostaju stvarni dokazi.
U uvodu ovom članku važno je napomenuti da se ti- Pitanje je: je li moguće stručno odgovoriti na isto
jekom posljednjih 200 godina sastav vrsta naših šuma indicirano u naslovu ovog članka? Kao prvo, potrebno
značajno promijenio. Dok je u prirodnom sastavu vrsta je spomenuti da se to odnosi na krajnje složenu sferu
postotak četinjača bio samo 34 % (norveška smreka problema s kojima se bavi šumsko istraživanje već
11 %), sada je njihov omjer više nego dvostruk, tj. 77 % više od 100 godina,
(norveška smreka 54 %). Istovremeno je smreka obično


KRATAK POGLED NA POVIJEST ISTRAŽIVANJA


VODNOG GOSPODARENJA U ŠUMARSTVU


A brief view of the history of water-management forest research


Prva sustavna mjerenja nekih parametara vodnog Međutim, međunarodno poznati članak Engl era
režima šumskih sastojina proveli su Krutsch u nje- (1919) još se danas citira. U toj studiji su vodni režim i
mačkom Tharandtu već davne 1863. (Delfs 1955). tok otjecanja uspoređeni u nešumskom i u šumskom


malom slivu u Švicarskoj. Slične su se komparativne


* Prof. ing. Petr Kantor, CSc, Fakultet šumarstva i drvne tehnolo- studije postupno provodile u ostalim šumarsko razvije
jiije, Mendelcvo sveučilište poljoprivrede i šumarstva, Zemedel- i „ „i -. r, , , ~, , ,
skä 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic n, m europskim zemljama. I Cehoslovacka je sudjeloe-
mail: kantor@mendelu.cz vala u istraživnaju. Problemi vodnog gospodarstva




ŠUMARSKI LIST 13/2005 str. 40     <-- 40 -->        PDF

P. Kantor: POSSIBILITIES OF MOUNTAIN FORESTS IN REDUCING HIGH WATERS AND FLOODS Šumarski list SUPLEMENT (2005) -39
After the fall on the forest soil precipitation water
largely infiltrates into it. In addition to the saturation of
soil pores and subsequent seepage the infiltrated water
gets through the system of water paths to a parent rock
(ducts in the forest soil created by roots of trees, animals
etc.), runs down and accumulates in the parent
rock hollows and depressions. If the parent rock stratum
is impermeable the infiltrated water changes into
the subsurface runoff. If the parent rock stratum is of
the fissure type the water permeates to groundwater
participating in underground runoff.


And just here, there is a substantial difference in the
water-management effectiveness of forests as compared
with agricultural soils the infiltration capacity of which
being usually markedly lower. Also during rainstorms
inducing floods in summer 1997, 1998 and in August
2002, surface runoff in spruce and beech was not decisive
(Sach, Kantor, Černohous 2000). And once
again, it is necessary to mention that in the given case it
refers to ordinarily managed forest stands. Increased
surface runoff (although generally not dangerous) is
usually noticed only during spring snowmelt in unmixed
beech stands where the compact layer of leaves
shows lower infiltration capacity than spruce litter. Moreover,
the intensity of thawing in leafless beech stands
under sunny days is even 30 % higher than in closed
spruce stands.


Under the usual regime of precipitation, water in
soil is drawn by roots of trees to ensure their physiological
processes (transpiration). Intensity of transpiration
in broadleaves is usually 2 to 5 times higher than
in coniferous stands. With respect to markedly higher
values of the biomass of spruce stand needles as
against the foliage biomass in beech stands differences
between transpiration of conifers and broadleaves are
usually not marked. This very important finding was
corroborated particularly by German studies already


30 to 40 years ago (L a d e f o g e d 1963, M i t s c h e r lieh
1971, Schmaltz 1969). Similarly, mature
stands of spruce and beech in the Orlicke hory Mts.
consumed for this form of evaporation virtually the same
amount of precipitation, viz on average 180 to 200
mm per year.


Finally, the certain part of soil moisture is evaporated
right from the soil surface - in our case it referred
to about 80 mm per year in both types of stands.


Data on the water regime of spruce and beech
stands on balance plots in the Orlicke hory Mts. are given
in Table 1.


Thus, it is evident that forest ecosystems are the
considerable consumer of precipitation water. Not only
findings from the Orlicke hory Mts. but also all available
published sources have corroborated substantially
higher consumption of water by spruce stands as compared
with beech stands - see Table 2. Markedly higher
interception in a spruce stand is unambiguously the
main cause of these differences.


From the viewpoint of reducing high waters and
floods the maximum water capacity of forest soils is of
exceptional importance. It is the highest amount of water
which can be retained by soil. In our actual case in
the Orlicke hory Mts. (light-textured sandy-loam up to
loamy-sandy Cambisol with a 50 % admixture of soil
skeleton), its value amounted to about 270 mm at the
soil depth of 70 cm. In the course of summer months,
the actual water content in the soil of both stands ranged
between 170 and 190 mm not decreasing below
150 mm in the period without precipitation. In the given
case, the forest soil of mountain spruce and beech
stands was able to retain and accumulate 40 to 60 mm
precipitation water, maximally 100 mm. In the moment
of achieving full water capacity, the soil can be compared
to a sponge fully saturated by water which is not
able to retain a millimeter of other precipitation.


CONCLUSION


Based on the long-time series of experimental studies
not only in the Orlickć hory Mts. but also in the
Beskids and through the analysis of a number of foreign
studies it is possible the following basic findings to
be regarded as proved:


1.
Surface runoff and subsequent soil erosion are quite
negligible in forest stands. This fact refers not only
to natural forests but also commercial forests. Even
on clear-felled areas, erosion processes (with the
exception of boulder localities) are not the result of
mere felling the trees but they are always a manifestation
of the poorly organised use and movement of
heavy means of mechanization and other activities
of man. The absence of surface runoff in the forest
(the runoff being also eliminated there by the system
of water paths created by roots of trees, animals
etc. in the forest soil) as against its often occurrence
on agricultural land is thus the first and very important
condition for the reduction of floods in the
landscape. As a textbook example, it is possible to
mention a local flood of 15 July 2002 in the Hodoninka
river watershed (district of Blansko). In virtually
forest-free parts of the cadaster of Crhov and
Olešnice, in the course of 2 hours some 100 to 170
mm precipitation fell which immediately flew out
on the surface of agricultural land into watercourses
causing many-million damage to property and unfortunately
even the loss of two human beings.




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P. Kantor: POSSIBILITIES OF MOUNTAIN FORESTS IN REDUCING HIGH WATERS AND FLOODS Šumarski list SUPLEMKNT (2005). 31-39
Switzerland. Similar comparative studies were gradually
carried out in other forestry-developed European
countries. Also Czechoslovakia participated in the research.
Water-management problems were studied in
the forested Kychova river watershed and in the unwooded
watershed of the Zdechovka river (Välek
1958, 1977).


After World War 2, based on the incentive of academicians
Maran and Lhota, water-management research
was concentrated on the region of the Moravian-Silesian
Beskids. In an uninterrupted series since 1953 (!),
basic problems are studied of "forest and water" in two


fully forested partial watersheds (the Mala Räztoka
watershed with autochthonous mainly beech stands
and the Cervik watershed with autochthonous dominant
Norway spruce). A number of immensely valuable
findings from the field experiment stations can be obtained
from papers of Zeleny (1971, 1974), Jara bač
andChlebck (1988, 1996).


Similarly oriented research programmes were established
in Germany, Switzerland, Russia and other
countries (Brechtel, Hoyningen-Huene 1978,
Benecke, van der Ploeg 1978, Mit scherlich
1971, Schmaltz 1969 etc.).


A JOINT PROJECT OF THE FACULTY OF FORESTRY AND WOOD TECHNOLOGY,
MLJAF IN BRNO AND OF THE VULHM RESEARCH STATION IN OPOČNO


The field of problems mentioned above concerning
"forest/water" relationships tries to study also one of
the research programmes of the Faculty of Forestry
and Wood Technology (FFWT) in Brno in cooperation
with the Research Institute of Forestry and Game Management
(RIFGM) - Research Station in Opočno.
The project entitled "Mountain forest ecosystems and
their management aimed at reducing floods" is at present
financially supported by the Grant Agency of the
Czech Republic (Grant No. 526/02/0851). Permanent
research plots in the cadaster of Deštne in the Orlickć
hory Mts. where the water regime is studied of both


main species of mountain forests, viz Norway spruce
and beech in a standard commercial forest are part of
the project. Spruce is usually presented to the general
public as a species unsuitable from water-management
aspects whereas beech is to be a species with favourable
water-management effects. The measurement of all
parameters of water balance of the forest stands is carried
out at Deštne in an uninterrupted series since
1977. At present, a 27-year series of results is available
including findings on torrent floods in July 1997, July
1998 and from the last flood in the turn of the first and
the second decade of August 2002.


WATER REGIME OF SPRUCE AND BEECH


Water regime of forest ecosystems is primarily dependent
on the supply of atmospheric precipitation, on
the consumption of water by the forest (so-called summary
evaporation, ie: interception + transpiration +
evaporation from soil) and changes in the water supply
in soil.


Thus, the basic equation of water balance can be expressed
as follows:


0 = S-ITE±AVp..„where


O = runoff


S = open area precipitation


ITE = total evaporation (I = interception;


T = transpiration; E = evaporation from soil)


AVp = changes in the soil water supply


Thus, it is possible to state that so many water flows
out the forest which is not consumed for its physical
evaporation (interception, evaporation from soil), physiological
requirements (transpiration) and replenishment
of soil water supplies.


Consumption of water by forest stands - total evaporation
is naturally related to the biomass of forest
ecosystems, particularly the amount of assimilatory organs.
It is always markedly higher in coniferous spruce


stands (in the stage of pole stands and large-diameter
stands on average 15 to 20 t needle dry matter per ha)
than in beech stands (on average 2 to 4 t foliage dry
matter per ha, namely only in the course of 5 to 7
months of the growing season).


First, let us look at the simplified course of the water
balance of both types of stands under comparison.


At each of the precipitation, part of it is intercepted
in tree crowns being later evaporated. Considering the
data mentioned above, crowns of spruce trees intercept
substantially more precipitation than crowns of beech
trees. This fact was positively corroborated in all experimental
studies (Delfs 1955, Mitscherlich 1971,
Schmaltz 1969, Välek 1958, Zeleny 1974 etc.).
In a spruce stand in the Orlicke hory Mts., interception
amounted to, in an annual average, 210 mm (16 % precipitation),
in a beech stand only 85 mm (7 % precipitation).
The remaining part of precipitation falls through
tree crowns to soil or occurs as stcmflow. It is of interest
that the stcmflow of a mature beech tree amounts to as
many as 1500 1 water at a precipitation of 50 mm. In
spruce, on the other hand, the stemflow is markedly lower
(at the precipitation only 30 to 50 1).




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P. Kantor: ULOGA PLANINSKIH ŠUMA U REDUKCIJI VISOKIH VODA I POPLAVA
Šumarski list - SUPLEMENT (2005), 31-39
J arabač, M., A. Chlebek : Vodni ücinky lesuaekologicke
vztahy. Zprävy lesn. vyzkumu, 41,1996,
No. 2, pp. \-4.


Kantor, P.: Vodohospodärskä funkce horskych smrkovych
a bukovych porost?. Lesnictvi, 30, 1984,
No. 6, pp. 471-490.


Ladefoged, K.: Transpiration of forest trees in closed
stands. Physiol. Plantarum, 16, 1963, No. 2,
pp.993-1010.


Mitscherlich, G.: Wald, Wachstum und Umwelt.
Bd. 2. Waldklima und Wasserhaushalt. Frankfurt


a. M., J.D. Sauerländers Verlag 1971. 365 pp.
Schmaltz , J.: Die Bedeutung des Waldes für den
Wasserkreislauf. Forstarchiv, 40, 1969, No. 7/8,
pp.132-147.
Sach,
F., P. Kantor, V. Cernohous: Lesne ekosystemy,
ich obhospodarovanie človekom a po


vodne v Orlickych horäch v lete roku 1997. Eko


lögia (Bratislava), 19, 2000, No. 1, pp. 72-91.


Välek, Z.: Vyzkum hydrologickeho pusobeni smrku
a buku v pramennych oblastech. Vodohosp. čas.,
6, 1958, No. 2, pp. 97-115.


Välek, Z.: Lesni dreviny jako vodohospodärsky a
protierozni činitel. Praha, Stätni zemedelske nakladatelstvi
1977.203 pp.


Zeleny, V.: Vliv pestebnich a težebnich zäsahu v lese
na odtok vody. /Zäverecnä zpräva/. VÜM Zbraslav
1971.75 pp.


Z e 1 e n y, V.: Vliv obnovy a premen lesnich porostu na
vodni režim malych horskych povodi ve stredohorske
flysove oblasti. /Zäverecnä zpräva/.
VÜM Zbraslav 1974. 60 pp.




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P. Kantor: ULOGA PLANINSKIH ŠUMA U REDUKCIJI VISOKIH VODA I POPLAVA
Šumarski list - SUPLEMENT (2005). 31-39
Sa stajališta smanjenja plimnih voda i poplava,
maksimalni vodni kapacitet šumskih tala je od izuzetne
važnosti. Tu je najviša količina vode koju tlo može
prihvatiti. U našem konkrcntom slučaju u Orlicke hory
(pješčano-ilovasto tlo lake teksture do ilovasto-pješčanog
kambisola s 50 % primjese skeletnog tla), ta vrijednost
doseže oko 270 mm na dubini tla od 70 cm. Tijekom
ljetnih mjeseci, stvarna sadržina vode u tlu obiju


ZAKLJUČAK


Na temelju dugoročnih serija eksperimentalnih proučavanja,
ne samo u Orlickć hory, već također i u Beskidima,
te analizom niza stranih studija, moguće je držati
sljedeće nalaze dokazanim:


1.
Površinsko otjecanje i posljedična erozija tla su zanemarive
u šumskim sastojinama. Ova činjenica se
ne odnosi samo na prirodne šume, nego isto tako na
komercijalne šume. Čak i na posječenim čistinama
procesi erozije (s iznimkom stjenovitih lokaliteta)
nisu rezultat same sječe drveća, već su uvijek manifestacija
loše organizirane uporabe i pokretanja teških
sredstava mehanizacije i ostalih čovjekovih aktivnosti.
Odsutnost površinskog otjecanja u šumi
(otjecanje je također ovdje eliminirano sustavom
vodnih puteva što ih stvara korijenje drveća, životinje,
itd. u šumskom tlu) je u usporedbi s njegovom
čestom pojavom na poljoprivrednom zemljištu tako
prvi i vrlo važan uvjet za redukciju poplava u krajoliku.
Kao školski primjer moguće je spomenuti lokalnu
poplavu 15. srpnja 2002. u slivu rijeke Hodoninke
(okrug Blansko). U doslovce nešumskom dijelu
katastarskih općina Crhov i Olešnice, u samo
dva sata palo je 100 do 170 mm oborine, koja je odmah
otekla na poljopirvrednu površinu, te u vodotokove,
prouzročivši višemilijunsku štetu, i nažalost,
dvije ljudske žrtve.
2.
S gledišta ekološke stabilnosti i sigurnosti prinosa i
proizvodnje, jedan od očiglednih prioriteta šumar-
LITERATURA


Ambros, Z.: Vodnä bilancia lesnych porastov Karpät.
Lesnicky časopis 24, 1978, No. 3, pp. 203-221.
B e n e c k e, P., R.R. van der P1 o e g: Wald und Wasser


II. Quantifizierung desWasscrumsatzes am Beispiel
eines Buchen- und eines Fichtenaltbcstandes
im Soiling. Forstarchiv, 49, 1978, No. 2, pp.
26-32.
Brechtel, H.M., J. Hoyningen-Huene:
Einfluß
der Verdunstung verschiedener Vegetationsdecken
auf den Gebietswasscrhaushalt. Gewässerpflege
- Bodennutzung - Landschaftsschutz. Vorträge
und Diskussionen der KWK Fachtagung


sastojina kretala se između 170 i 190 mm, a nije padala
ispod 150 mm u vrijeme bez oborina. U danom je slučaju
tlo sastojina planinske smreke i bukve bilo u stanju
zadržati i akumulirati od 40 do 60 mm oborinskc
vode, a maksimalno 100 mm. U trenutku dosizanja punog
vodnog kapaciteta, tlo se može usporediti sa potpuno
natopljenom spužvom, koja nije u stanju zadržati
ni milimetar druge oborine.


-
Conclusion
stva je transformacija smrekinih monokultura u mješovite
šume. Međutim, rezultati istraživanja pokazali
su da povećani omjeri listača ne mogu smanjiti
opasnost od plimnih voda i poplava. Bjelogorične
vrste su u stanju zadržati i povući manje oborinske
vode nego crnogorične vrste (posebice smreka), s
obzirom na njihovo bezlisno stanje izvan sezone vegetacije,
te malu biomasu organa asimilacije.


3.
Visinske i planinske šume (za razliku od nešumskih
ekosustava) ublažuju vrlo lako kišne oluje do 50 mm.
Neprekinute oborine do 100 mm manifestiraju s
ukupnom količinom otjecanja iz šume, ali s obzirom
na vodno gospodarenje, djelotvornost je još uvijek
prihvatljiva. Prag od 150 do 200 mm neprekinute
oborine može se smatrati kritičnom granicom za djelotvornu
redukciju poplava šumom. Pod uvjetima
ove oborinske ukupnosti, šumsko tlo je uvijek potpuno
natopljeno vodom uključujući depresije, kako na
površini tla, tako i u matičnom sloju. Tada nekontrolirano
i spontano otjecanje nastupa kroz cijeli profil
tla, često se pojavljujući na površini tla, bez obzira na
sastav vrsta ili metode gospodarenja. Drugim riječima,
korpus šumskog tla također pokazuje, slično
kao rezervoari, svoje kapacitetne mogućnosti, koje
ne mogu biti dostignute.
-
References
Oktober 1978 in Bad Dürkhcim, 1978, pp.
172-231.
De If s, J.: Die Niederschlagszurückhaltung im Walde.
Mitteilungen des Arbeitskreises, Wald und Wasser,
1995, No. 2, Koblenz. 54 pp.
Engler, A.: Untersuchungen über den Einfluß des
Waldes auf den Stand der Gewässer. Mitt. d.
Schw. Centralanst. f. d. Forstl. Versuchsw., Bd.
XII,Zurüch, 1919.
Jarabäc, M., A. Chlebek: The effect of forests on
the hydrological budget. Mitt. Forstl. Bundesversuchsanst.
Wien, No 159, 1988, pp. 239-251.