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ŠUMARSKI LIST 9-10/1996 str. 27     <-- 27 -->        PDF

A. Krpan. S Petreš, T. Poriinsky: ISTRAŽI VANJE OŠTEĆENJA I´RUPACA HRASTA KITNJAKA I BUKVE RATNIM DJELOVANJIMA Šumarski lis! br.9 10, (´XX (19%), 399-410
Krpan, A. P. B. & Petreš, S., T, Porši nsky: culate oak logs and 63 beech logs from the Lipovljani
RESEARCH ON THE WAR-INFLICTED DAMAGE sawmill timber yard, we have investigated the cause
ON THE SESSILE-FLOWERED OAK AND BEECH and consequence of tree injuries. The discussion items
TIMBER (Original in Croatian: Istraživanje oštećenja are the distribution of the injuries along the logs; type,
trupaca hrasta kitnjaka i bukve ratnim djelovanjima, number and size of the round foreign bodies; depth of
with summary in English) their penetration, and the consequences of the damage

in te ms of usable

With direct war damage found in Croatian forestr volume reduction, quality change,
stands, we may now and in future expect on the market an(* financial loss.
and in wood-processing plants a considerable quantity Key word s : sessile-flowered oak and beech, raeof
timber with remnants of explosive projectiles and chanical injury and additional errors due to war, cause
various types of ammunition. On a sample of 56 pedun- and consequence of injuries


In the Lipovljani sawmill 56 sessile-flowered oak logs and 63 beech logs
were examined. The mean log diameters were 33.3 cm and 40.6 respectively.
The oak length was 4.1 m, beech 4.5 m, mean volume 0.36 m3 and 0.58 m3 respectively.

The prevailing number of injuries (65.4 %) upon oak logs are located along
the first two length meters above groung, while 51.3 % of the damage is likewise
located on beech logs. Although log samples were chosen in the sawmill,
without knowing their original location in the trunk, it is clear that most logs
were processed from the bottom trunk parts.

The number of damage is mostly one, followed by two and three injuries
per one log. One to three injuries were found on 82.0 % of oak logs, 71.4 % on
beech. Ten injuries on one log has so far been the biggest number of injuries.

In the oak logs we found 133 foreign bodies, of which 91.7 % were the most
harmful metal projectile fragments. Steel balls from the VBR-projectiles were

3.8 "/<>, infantry ammunition 4.5 %. In beech logs there were 185 foreign bodies,
of which 86.5 % were projectile fragments, 10.8 % balls and 2.7 % ammunition.
Average fragment size was 10.9 x 8.4 mm; ball diameter 10.0 mm; ammunition
7.62 mm.

The depth of penetration in the oak timber was between 30 mm and 135
mm, or average 71 mm; in beech logs, the depth ranged from 10 mm to 150
mm, average 49.6 mm.

Total volume of oakwoodsections was 0.266 m3, beechwood 0.299 m-\ The
section volume is 1.1 % of the net volume of both wood species. The depth of
penetration according to the valid standards for roundwood may influence the
timber quality, i.e. cause classification decrease.

In 216 injuries close to the metal foreign objects, we noticed change in
wood colour followed by various phases of wood rot. On 51 injuries, there was
only one change of colour. Oak timber injuries were all attacked by fungi,
while on beech logs 13 injuries were without visible destruction.

The depth of penetration was mostly within allowed limits of the valid standards
of mechanical injuries, therefore was the deterioration mostly associated
with fungi. The average financial loss due to quality decrease was 13.7 % of
log value according to the minimum price-list of the "Croatian Forests " Co.