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Bailey , L. H. 1942: The standard cyclopedia of horticulture. Vol. II. The Macmilla
Company. New York.
Beckett , K. A. 1983: The concise encyclopedia of garden plants. London.
Fukarek, P. 1980: Ilex aquifolium L.: Šumarska enciklopedija 1, 185—186. Leksikografski
Hart mann, H. T., Kester, D. E. 1975: Plant propagation — principles and
practices. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Kriissmann , G. 1962: Handbuch der Laubgehölze. Band IL Verlag Paul Parey,
Berlin and Hamburg.
Kriissmann , G. 1978: Die Baumschule. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin und Hamburg.
R e h d e r, A. 1958: Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs. The Macmillan Company,
Šegulja, N., Lovašen-Eberhard, Ž, 1987: Florogenetsko značenje vrste
Ilex aquifolium L.: Treći kongres biologa Hrvatske, 109. Hrvatsko biološko
Webb, D. A. 1968: Ilex L.: Flora Europaea 2, 241. Cambridge University Press.
Propagation of English Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.)
English or common holly is an indigenous plant in Europe including Great
Britain to W. Asia and N. Africa. Ilex aquifolium L. is extremely variable and has
given rise to numerous forms, differing in leaf shape and colour, growth habit
and colour of berries.
Germination of holly seed is very erratic; those of some species, Ilex crenata,
Ilex vomitoria, germinate promptly and should be planted as soon as they are
gathered. Seeds of other species, Ilex aquifolium, Ilex cornuta and Ilex verticilata,
do not germinate until a year or more after planting even though stratified, owing
probably to rudimentary embryos at time of harvest (Hartmann and Kester 1975).
Seeds of Ilex aquifolium should be collected and cleaned as soon as the fruit
is ripe in the fall and then stored at about 4°C until spring in a mixture
of moist sand and peat moss. Germination in those species generally does not
occur a year later.
In our study the germination test includet the seed of Ilex aqufolium, picked-
up from bush grown in the Botanical Garden, of the Department of Botany, at
the Science Faculty, Zagreb. From control seed we obtained 18% and 21% of germinate
seed, but from stratified seed gave a result of 41% an 54% of germinate
seed. The difference between the two manner used (23%,, 33%) in the germinate
process is evident in favour of procedure of stratified seeds.
The propagation of English holly from cuttings has been employed in horticultural
practice. Best rooting is usually obtained from mid- to late summer, but
cuttings may be successfully taken on into the following spring. Wounding the
base of the cuttings helps induce root formation.
In our experiments the effect of NAA at different concentrations (0,1%, 0,3%,,
0,6%) on the formation of adventitious roots of English holly was investigated.
The chemical under consideration induced rhizogenesis and consequently increased
the percentage of rooted cuttings in plant species investigated. From cuttings treated
with NAA we obtained 91%, 100%,, 98%, 95%, 100% and 92% of rooted cuttings,
while those untreated (control) resulted in 17%,, 21%, 23%, 31%, 25% and 30% of
rooted cuttings. The differences of 74%, 79%, 75%, 64%,, 75%, and 62% in the rooting
process proved to be statistically significant in favour of procedure of treated
cuttings (Tab. 2).