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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/1986 str. 105     <-- 105 -->        PDF

tion needed, any data processing cannot be envisaged without computers. Study
methods must be dynamic, flexible, precise and cheap, and performed by very
specialised staff. Control at all levels of the forest must be maintained.

Prof. Dr. Stevan Bojanin

The Situation on Development and Utilisation of Forests in SR Croatia

During the second half of the 19th century, the Socialist Republic of Croatia
began to produce French and German staves frdm quality oak trees. At the
same time, narrow sleepers were manufactured for railway tracks. Prior to this,
logs and different types of wood for carpentry had been produced. Coal production
from beechwood was developed.

The turning point in the use of forests came about with the building of
steam-driven sawmills. The first such saw mill was constructed in SR Croatia
in 1858. Hand tools (handsaws, axes and auxhilary tools) were used for felling
and construction.

Producers and traders bought complete trees from the forest owner and
managed the cutting process themselves. Most of the workers were seasonal

Transport of the felled wood was mostly done by forest railway which, using
the strength of animals (mainly horses) pulled the wood from the forest to the
station. After the liberation, most of the forests became Government property.

Exploitation of the forest is now the responsibility of the wood industry.
The annual yield is around 4.500.000 m:! of wood mass — of which about 60Vo
goes for technical wood and about 40 for cellulose. Deciduous species (mainly
beech) represents 85°/o and coniferous about 15%).

Around 1960 motorised handsaws for each worker to use for felling were
introduced and production increased 4.5 times. There is now the possibility of
multimetre wood production as the pulling of wood from the site is now done
by adapted farm machines and forwarders. The work is done moinly by tractors
with wheels, and not so much by caterpillars. Tractors for pulling wood along
the ground are equipped with a pulling system. This process is not completely
mechanised and a particular problem is the pulling olf one-metre lengths of

Primary accessibility to the forest by path varies from one forest to another
but is on average 8m per ha. This average is always increasing. Constructing
roads as a secondary accessibility is not acceptable everywhere. The striding
road network is about 100 and more metres per ha.

Transport of wood is done by lorries and railway over long distances, but
for short distances by forwarders and tractors with trailers. This part of the
process is completely mechanised. Loading and unloading of tree trunks is also
completely mechanised and is done by cranes. Unloading is done by cranes on
to timber yards to await production. Loading and unloading of logs is not completely