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ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1970 str. 21     <-- 21 -->        PDF

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BRUTIAN PINE (Pinus brutia Ten.)


In Yugoslavia, Brutian Pine was spread artificially, mainly in the northern part
of the Adriatic region (peninsula of Istria, Kvarner islands) where about 40 major
stands aged 20—70 years are found, and as many smaller and younger ones.

Ecological characters. In the Eumediterranean region and in the
warmer part of the sub-Mediterranean region Brutian Pine is a heat tolerant,
drought-resistant and windfirm species. It is adaptable to almost all soil types,
tolerates soils poor in mineral nutrients and drier soils if not continuously shallow;
its abundant needle litter improves the soil. On sites above 350 (400) m the cultivation
and productivity of this Pine species are problematic especially on more
exposed slopes and poorer soils. It thrives in semiarid and semihumid climates.
In the Eumediterranean region and in the warmer part of the sub-Mediterranean
region it is very adaptable to the influences of temperature extremes. Extremely
high temperatures are not critical, but extremely low ones are. However, the
vitality of Brutian Pine in Istria does not decrease significanthy under shorttime
temperatures up to about —21° C if other ecological factors favour it. In the border
belt between Carpinetum orientalis and Seslerio-jOstryetum its development is good
on better soils and on sunny and more sheltered sites. On higher and more exposed
sites, because of winter cold and frosts, Brutian Pine exhibits poor vitality. The
amount of rainfall does not represent a critical factor. Nor are critical the winds
in the Eumediterranean and lower sub-Mediterranean zones, nor the salinity of
the air except the sites which are much exposed to strong northerly winds called
»bura«. According to its ecological requirements Brutian Pine is somewhere between
Aleppo Pine and Austrian Pine.

Regeneration and development. On better sites natural regeneration
is good if the canopy of the mother stand is more strongly opened, and especially
if dead organic matter and low growth are burnt. The young reproduction tolerates
a diffuse shading but at the age of grown-up reproduction, and, especially at the
sapling stage, the canopy should be opened. According to these observations in
mixed stands Brutian Pine tolerates shading better than Aleppo Pine but less well
than Austrian Pine. In the more grown-up stands most rational is the group system
of regeneration, i. e. the ever increasing heavy thinnings, the establishment of new
reproduction in groups which are intentionally enlarged and integrated. In mixed
stands with Aleppo Pine, Brutian Pine is somewhat more vigorous in competition
especially in the sub-Mediterranean area. In mixed stands with Austrian Pine
Brutian Pine, thanks to its higher growth rate and widerspreading crown, generally
supresses Austrian Pine in all altitudinal zones from the sea to the upper limit of
Carpinetum orientalis. The better the site the more subdominant the position of
Austrian Pine.