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ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 151     <-- 151 -->        PDF

DOSTIGNUĆA ŠUMARSKE GENETIKE I SELEKCIJE
U JUGOSLAVIJI


(Priloženi referat)


B02IDAR NICOTA


Šumarski institut, Skopje, Jugoslavija
i


BRANISLAV MARIC


Institut za šumarstvo i drvnu industriju, Beograd, Jugoslavija


I UVOD


Teritorija Jugoslavije prostire se između 40°51´ i 46°53´ severne geografske
širine i 13°23´ i 30u02´ istočne geografske dužine na površini od 255.804
km2, od čega je 39% pod šumama i šumskim zemljištem. Najviša tačka leži na
2863 m na vrhu Triglava u Julijskim Alpama (SR Slovenija). Zastupljeni su
mediteranski, umerenokontinentalni i kontinentalni klimatski tipovi sa mnogim
lokalnim varijetetima. Također su vrlo raznovrsne i geološke podloge i tipovi
zemljišta.


Savremeni biljni po´krivač ove zemlje rezultat je, pored navedenih činilaca
i posebnog vekovnog razvitka, tako da je njena dendroflora veoma bogata
vrstama koje pripadaju eurosibirskom, pontijskom, srednjeevropskom i istočnomediteranskcm
flornom elementu. Ova šumska vegetacija Jugoslavije grupiše
se u veliki broj asocijacija odn. subasocijacija i facijesa. Učešće najvažnijih vrsta
drveća je sledeće: jela i smrča 22%, ostali četinari 4%; bukva 50%; hrastovi
14%; ostali lišćari 10%.


Veliki broj autohtonih vrsta, podvrsta, varijeteta, rasa (ekotipova i biotipova)
kao i izobilje alohtonih vrsta četinara i lišćara pružaju velike mogućnosti
za razvoj istraživanja u oblasti šumarske genetike i selekcije. Sama šumarska
genetika je vrlo mlada biološka disciplina u našoj zemlji. Njen dosadašnji
razvoj možemo podeliti u dva perioda. U prvom periodu, koji počinje
posle-drugog svetskog rata i oslobođenja naše zemlje, zahvaljujući naglom privrednom
usponu i razvoju naučne misli, bilo je moguće odabiranje i usavršavanje
kadrova kao i nabavka opreme za rad na ovom polju. U ovom periodu,
do 1959. godine, vršena su fragmentarna, sporadična i nesistematska istraživanja.
U SR Hrvatskoj i SR Srbiji prvi početci datiraju iz 1952. godine a u
ostalim republikama su kasniji — 1956. — 1958. godine. Drugi period počinje
1959. godine. Za njega je karakterističan početak sistematskog izbora tematike,
laboratorijskih i terenskih istraživanja. U šumarskim institutima formiraju se
otseci i laboratorije a na šumarskim fakultetima uvode predavanja iz oblasti
genetike i oplemenjivanja šumskog drveća. Zahvaljujući svemu ovome od 1959.
godine do danas postignut je vidan napredak u ovoj disciplini: savladane su


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ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 152     <-- 152 -->        PDF

početne teškoće i postavljena dobra osnova za dalji rad, tako da se mogu
izbeći nepotrebna dupliranja u samom radu. Ovom su doprineli pravilna organizacija
i podela rada između zainteresovanih ustanova i uzajamna pomoć,
specijalizacija i usavršavanje stručnjaka u zemlji i inostranstvu kao i prihvatanje
zajedničke problematike od strane saradnika iz pojedinih republika.
Odraz svega toga je današnja brojnost i sposobnost kadrova, visina uloženih
sredstava i savremenost tematike koja se obrađuje.


Problemi koji se istražuju u institutima i na fakultetima u pojedinim republikama
formulisani su u projektima, koje finansiraju fondovi za naučni
,rad, federacije ili pojedinih republika. Za ovaj sistem finansiranja vezan je
i sistem saradnje u kome jedna ustanova fungira kao nosilac projekta (teme) a
druge sarađuju. Saradnici sa nosiocem tema svake godine održavaju sastanke
(kabinetske i terenske) u pojedinim republikama, na kojima se izlažu rezultati,
opravdanost postavljenih zadataka i vrše dopune programa i raspodela sredstava.
U 1964. godini u sastavu Zajednice istraživačkih ustanova u šumarstvu
Jugoslavije formirana je Sekcija za genetiku i oplemenjivanje šumskog drveća.


U daljem izlaganju izneće se u kratkim crtama dostignuća iz ove oblasti
u našoj zemlji. Jasno je da se u ovako kratkom vremenu nisu mogli postići
naročito krupni rezultati ali su postavljene dobre osnove za dalji rad.


II MASOVNA I INDIVIDUALNA SELEKCIJA


Prvi cilj našeg rada na selekciji šumskog drveća bio je da u proizvodnji
semena za podizanje novih šuma i rekonstrukcije degradiranih prirodnih sastojina
dostignemo naprednu inostranu praksu. Prethodnih vlastitih iskustava
nismo imali pa se moralo sve početi od početka. Inostrana iskustva su nam
pomogla da izbegnemo lutanja. Treba reći i to da se selekcijom šumskog drveća
još bave samo naučne ustanove dok privredne organizacije tek naslućuju koristi
od ovog rada i postepeno ga prihvataju. Svakako da će napredak u tom pogledu
zavisiti od koristi koje šumarska praksa bude imala od selekcije.


U odnosu na ranije nekontrolisano sakupljanje semena, proizvodnja semena
u izdvojenim sastojinama u svakom slučaju predstavlja korak napred,
koji i praksa prihvata. Odabiranje plus stabala ostaje još u domenu naučnih
ustanova, u okviru programa za dalji rad na oplemenjivanju šumskog drveća.


1) Izdvajanje semenskih sastojina


Zahvat i efekat ovih radova bio je različit u pojedinim republikama, u
zavisnosti od raspoloživog kadra. Naučne ustanove su u tome učestvovale bilo
instruktažom bilo direktnim obavljanjem svih radova. U većini slučajeva stručnjaci
iz naučnih ustanova vršili su reviziju predloga, koje su podnosili stručnjaci
iz prakse. Ovu akciju su obilno potpomogli Jugoslavenski centar za poljoprivredu
i šumarstvo i republičke privredne komore. Pomenuti Centar već
je izdao prvi jugoslovenski registar semenskih sastojina četinara.


a) Semenske sastojim četinara — Izdvajanje ovih objekata uglavnom je
završeno. Ovaj rad prvi je organizovao Institut za šumarstvo i drvnu industriju
SR Slovenije. Izbor ovih objekata u SR Srbiji, SR Bosni i Hercegovini
i SR Makedoniji također je izvršen uz pomoć šumarskih instituta, u SR Hrvatskoj
to je uradio Zavod za kontrolu šumskog semena na Rijeci a u SR Crnoj
Gori, Republički centar za unapređenje poljoprivrede i šumarstva u Titogradu.




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 153     <-- 153 -->        PDF

U priloženoj tablici br. 1 dat je sumarni pregled semenskih objekata četinara.
Ukupna reducirana površina njihova od 6,541,26 ha svakako još nije
odraz stvarnih potreba, još manje to važi za učešće pojedinih vrsta. Realne
potrebe i proveravanje potomstva iz pojedinih objekata unosiće potrebne korekcije
u ovaj registar.


Većina ovih sastojina su u društvenoj svojini. Prilikom izdvajanja išlo se
na čiste sastojine, ali to nije uvek bilo moguće. U izdvojenim objektima jele,
smrče i belog bora ima 0,2 do 0,4 drugih vrsta. Sve ove sastojine pripadaju tipu
»normalnih« semenskih sastojina. Semenske sastojine autohtonih vrsta su skoro
sve prirodnog porekla. Semenske sastojine alohtonih vrsta doprineće proširivanju
areala tih vrsta.


b) Semenske sastojine lišćara. Izdvajanje ovih objekata početo je pre 2
godine i u pojedinim republikama je u toku ili u završnoj fazi. Za ovu selekciju
šumarka praksa je manje zainteresovana zbog manje potražnje semena lišćara
u zemlji. I same naučne ustanove ovom poslu nisu mogle da se potpuno posvete
zbog drugih zadataka. U izdvajanju ovih objekata učestvovali su šumarski instituti
SR Slovenije, SR Srbije, SR Makedonije i SR Bosne i Hercegovine.
Efekat dosadašnje selekcije vidi se iz tabele br. 2. Upoređenjem podataka iz
tabele br. 1 i 2 vidi se da je površina do sada izdvojenih semenskih objekata
lišćara znatno manja od odgovarajuće površine četinara, ma da su lišćari znatno
jače zastupljeni.


U dosadašnjem radu na izdvajanju semenskih sastojina dolazili su do izražaja
individualni kriterijumi selekcionera. U daljem radu nastojaće se da se
oni ujednače. Uzet u celini ovaj rad je doprineo da se dosadašnje sakupljanje
semena šumskog drveća kod nas zameni organizovanom proizvodnjom toga
semena visokog kvaliteta. Ovaj viši stupanj proizvodnje šumskog semena prihvatamo
kao prelaz na savremenu proizvodnju selekcioniranog semena u semen-
skim plantažama. Zakonski propisi koji će se doneti uskoro, omogućit će da se
ovaj sistem sporevede u cjelini. U pojedinim republikama već je izvršeno ili je
u pripremi reoniranje predela upotrebe za pojedine provenijencije i formirane
su savremene organizacije za proizvodnju semena i sadnica.


2) Odabiranje plus stabala


Stručnjaci iz šumarskih instituta i sa šumarskih fakulteta pristupili su
odabiranju plus stabala da bi se dobio početni materijal za dalje radove na oplemenjivanju
šumskog drveća. Izdvajanje plus stabala na bazi fenotipa ukazalo
je na složenost ovog problema s obzirom na relativnu genotipsiku vrednost
fenotipa, na cilj izbora (biološke odn. tehnološke osobine, produkcija mase) i
na značaj nižih sistematskih jedinica unutar vrste za dalji rad na oplemenjivanju.


Naše šume, uzete u celini, sadrže srazmerno više »divljih« elemenata nego
šume u nekim drugim evropskim zemljama. Klimatske, geološke, pedološke,
orografske i hidrografske prilike toliko su u nas raznovrsne i bogate prelazima
da se čak i na razdaljini od samo stotinjak metara uslovi za rast i razviće
šumskog drveća mogu znatno razlikovati. Ovo se naročito potencira u oblastima
labilnog klimata, gde se u vremenskom periodu od samo 10 godina smenjuju
nizovi godina sa elementima mediteranske odn. kontinentalne klime. Posledica
svega toga je veliki genetički varijabilitet naših šumskih vrsta tj. obilje ekotipova
i biotipova. Prirodni varijabilitet našeg šumskog drveća nije do sada




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 154     <-- 154 -->        PDF

dovoljno proučen te se to sve više nametalo kao problem prilikom odabiranja
semenskih sastojina i plus stabala. Međutim sve iznete teškoće nisu mogle biti
prepreka za odabiranje plus stabala jer će se u daljem radu na ovom polju
vršiti potrebne dopune i korekcije zahvaljujući novim saznanjima i otkrićima
u prirodi.


a) Plus stabla četinara. — Imajući na umu cilj oplemenjivanja i malu
zastupljenost četinara u našim šumama prvo smo počeli sa izdvajanjem plus
stabala tih vrsta. Taj posao su izvršili stalni ili spoljni saradnici Zavoda za
četinjače u Jatrebars´kom (SR Hrvatske), instituta za šumarstvo i drvnu industriju
u Ljubljani, Sarajevu i Beogradu (SR Slovenija, SR Bosna i Hercegovina
i SR Srbija) i Šumarskog instituta u Skoplju (SR Makedonija). Ta plus stabla
su fenotipovi birani većinom na bazi bioloških osobina. Manji broj je biran na
bazi superiorne produkcije (SR Slovenija: 26 stabala Larix europea L., 7 stabala
Pinus nigra Arn., 2 stabla Picea excelsa L.). Na bazi tehnoloških osobina izbor
je vršen pre svega kod vrste Picea abies (ujednačenost godova-rezonans drvo),
Larix decidua (kvalitet drveta), Pinus silvestris (sa malim i velikim procentom
srčevine) i dr. Takode su izabrana stabla Pinus nigra, P. peuce i P. silvestris
sa nadprosečnom produkcijom smole (u SR Srbiji i SR Makedoniji). Ova poslednja
stabla nisu navedena u priloženoj tabeli br. 3.


Iz tabele br. 3 vidi se broj izabranih plus stabala glavnih vrsta autohtonih
i alohtonih četinara po pojedinim republikama. Njihov ukupni broj iznosi 1.061.
Odabiranje plus stabala još nije završeno jer još nisu pregledane sve šume
četinara.


b) Plus stabla lišćara — Odabiranju plus stabala lišćara posvećeno je dovoljno
pažnje od strane naučnih ustanova, u skladu sa opštim i ekonomskim
značajem ovih vrsta u pojedinim republikama. Ovaj izbor izvršili su saradnici
instituta u Beogradu, Sarajevu i Skoplju kao i Zavoda za dendrologiju i genetiku
Šumarskog fakulteta u Zagrebu. Plus stabla lišćara odabrana su na
osnovu fenotipa i bioloških osobina. Iz tabele br. 3 vidi se broj izabranih plus
stabala po republikama i po vrstama. Njihov ukupni broj iznosi 476 i manji je
nego odgovarajući broj četinarskih stabala. Ni odabiranje plus stabala lišćara
nije još završeno.


c) Plus stabla topola i vrba — Odabiranje plus stabala topola i vrba izvršili
su saradnici Zavoda za topole u Novom Sadu (SR Srbija), Zavoda za dendrologiju
i genetiku Šumarskog fakulteta u Zagrebu (SR Hrvatska) i instituta u
Ljubljani i Skoplju. Ma da su inostrani selekcionirani klonovi topola i vrba znatno
doprineli povećanju proizvodnje drvne mase ovih vrsta kod nas, ipak se pristupilo
proučavanju domaćih vrsta ova dva roda i odabiranju njihovih plus
stabala, koja se već koriste i dalje će se koristiti kao početni materijal za oplemenjivanje.
U tome radu vidne rezultate su postigli istraživači iz Zavoda za
topolu u Novom Sadu i sa šumarskih fakulteta u Beogradu i Zagrebu.


U tabeli br. 4 dat je pregled odabranih plus stabala ovih vrsta po republikama.
Odabiranje je počelo sa crnom topolom. Ta plus stabla su prvo korišeena
za proizvodnju klonskog materijala a kasnije i kao roditeljska stabla za kontrolisanu
hibridizaciju. Izbor plus stabala bele topole, trepetlike i vrba je u toku.
Selekcija je vršena pretežno u ravničarskim predelima. U planinskim predelima
selekcija je tek počela.


Veći broj plus stabala prenet je već u žive arhive — populetume i salicetume.
Vrednost plus stabala topola i vrba proverava se na njihovom vegetativnom
i generativnom potomstvu testiranjem.




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 155     <-- 155 -->        PDF

3) Istraživanje nižih sistematskih kategorija


Osnova i najvažnija metoda za oplemenjivanje šumskog drveća je odabiranje
u prirodnim šumama individua koje su sa genetičkog gledišta korisne za
dalji rad na opelemenjivanju. Takvih individua još ima u prirodnim šumama,
treba ih samo pronaći, opisati i proučiti naslednu stabilnost njihovih bioloških
i privredno korisnih osobina. Kod nas je sistematsko proučavanje prirodnog
varijabiliteta vrsta šumskog drveća praktički počelo sa odabiranjem plus stabala.
Početna istraživanja iz ove oblasti pripadaju Zavodu za dendrologiju i genetiku
šumarskog fakulteta u Zagrebu (bibl. 1, 2, 3 i 4) i Šumarskom institutu
u Skopju (bibl. 73, 74, 76 i 77). Ova istraživanja dobijaju sve više mosta i u
drugim naučnim ustanovama.


Dosadašnja istraživanja na običnom boru (Pinus silvestris L.) ukazala su
na postojanje ravničarskog i planinskog tipa. Kod planinskog tipa konstatirane
su i proučene forme: pločastokorasta (sa velikim procentom srčevine), dugoljuspastokorasta
(sa malim procentom srčevine) u sitnoljuspastokorasta forma sa
jako izraženom piramidalnom krošnjom (elitna forma) koja ne strada od snega
(SR Makedonija, SR Slovenija).


Kod crnog bora (Pinus nigra Arn.) dokazano je postojanje podvrsta ssp.
Pallasiana, dalmatica, gočensis var. illyrica kao i ekotipova na krečnoj odn. sili—
katnoj podlozi, biotipova sa različitim oblicima krošnje i sa razlikama u vremenu
kretanja vegetacije (SR Hrvatska, SR Makedonija, SR Srbija).


Kod jele (Abies alba) uočene su i prelazne forme između grčke i evropske
jele kao i forme sa grubom i glatkom korom. Paralelno sa ovim istražuju se
uzroci sušenja evropske jele i pojave njenih prirodnih ekotipova i mutanata.
Na teritoriju SR Slovenije konstatirano je katastrofalno sušenje ove vrste na
površini od 30.000 ha. Na ovim površinama izvode se istraživanja za objašnjenje
te pojave sa stanovišta šumarske genetike kao i napori u pravcu selekcije. Pronađen
je ekotip, koji za sada ispoljava rezistenciju na propadanje jele. Ovaj
ekotip ima veći prirast koji osetljivo prelazi normalne srednje vrednosti jele
u istom području.


Kod smrče (Picea abies) izučavaju se forme koje se razlikuju po tipu
grananja, forme (ekotipovi) sa ujednačenim godovima (rezonansno drvo), forme
sa grubom odn. glatkom korom kao i pojava prirodnih mutanata (SR Slovenija,
SR Bosna i Hercegovina, SR Hrvatska, SR Makedonija).


Kod ariša (Larix decidua), čije je područje prirodnog rasprostranjenja na
maloj površini (alpski deo SR Slovenije), vršena su orijentaciona istraživanja u
cilju utvrđivanja specifičnih morfoloških i fizioloških karakteristika njegove
geografske rase, nazvane »krvavi ariš« čije je postojanje konstatovano.


Kod molike (Pinus peuce L.) uočeni su posebni ekotipovi na krečnoj odn.
na silikatnoj podlozi kao i pozni i rani fenotipovi (SR Makedonija).


I kod lišćara sve je više zapaženih pojava prirodnog varijabiliteta. U tom
smislu počinje se proučavanjem bukve, hrastova, lipa, breze, oraha, bagrema
i dr.


Kod bukve (Fagus silvatica L., Fagus moesiaca Maly) (Czecz) konstatirano
je da na većim prostranstvima pripada vrsti balkanske bukve. Istražuje se njena
izdiferenciranost na nizinske, planinske i subalpske ekotipove. Početna selekciono-
sistematska istraživanja na utvrđivanju fizioloških i morfoloških diferencijalnih
karakteristika geografskih i stanišnih rasa i ekotipova vršena su od Instituta
u Ljubljani. Ustanovljena je klinalna korelaciona ovisnost vegetacionog


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ritma o nadmorskoj visini provenijencija. Uočeni su rani i kasni fenotipovi,
prelazni tipovi između istočne i evropske bukve (SR Slovenija, SR Makedonija
i SR Srbija).


Kod hrastova (Qurecus sp.) situacija je komplikovanija. Istraživanja se
vrše u SR Srbiji, SR Hrvatskoj i SR Makedoniji. Kod breze zapažene su Betula
verrucosa i B. pubescens kao i prelazne forme, tipovi koji se razlikuju po kori
kao i tipovi sa izraslinama okcaste strukture, kakvi su poznate kod severnih
tipova (SR Srbija, SR Makedonija). I kcd javora (Acer pseudoplatanus) obraćena
je naročita pažnja na stabla sa dževerastom strukturom. Vršena su i morfološka
i fiziološka istraživanja radi utvrđivanja ekotipova .(SR Bosna i Hercegovina,
SR Slovenija).


Kod crnih domaćih topola zapažena su variranja po obliku debla kao i
formi različito otpornih na Melampsora sp. (Zavod za topole). Kod trepetljike
uočene su forme različite po boji kore (crna, siva, zelena i bela) i po otpornosti
na trulenje (Šumarski institut — Skoplje, Šumarski fakultet — Beograd). U
toku su proučavanja populacija bele vrbe (Salix alba L.) i varijabiliteta unutrašnjih
tehnoloških svojstava njenog drveta (Zavod za topole). Zapažene su
i opisane pojave hermofroditnih cvetova kod crne i hibridnih topola (Šumarski
fakultet Beograd, Zavod za topole Novi Sad, Šumarski institut — Skoplje).
Dcbijena je prva imbridovana generacija monecijskog stabla crne topole (Šumarski
fakultet — Beograd). Sem pomenutih, ovim problemima počinju da se
bave i druge naučne ustanove (3, 26, 46, 52, 71).


Na kraju ovog poglavlja želimo istaći da su u njemu iznete samo informacije,
bez detaljnih rezultata i zaključaka, koji su izneti u objavljenim radovima.
Mnoga istraživanja su u toku pa su ona samo napomenuta. U svakom slučaju
cilj nam je bio da prikažemo delatnosti i istraživanja koja su još u početnoj
fazi koja će se nastaviti i upotpuniti savremenim metodama. Međutim bilo bi
neskromno ako se nebi iznelo da je u ovom kratkom periodu postignuto prilično
zahvaljujući trudu i samopregom onih, koji su ovom radu prišli sa interesovanjem
i ljubavlju.


III VEGETATIVNO RAZMNOŽAVANJE


Početni radovi na oplemenjivanju šumsikog drveća u našoj zemlji postavili
su pred naše naučne ustanove problem vegetativnog razmnožavanja. Da bi se
moglo podizati žive arhive, semenske plantaže, drvoredi za komparaciju, proveravati
genetske osobine itd. bilo je potrebno upoznati metode kalemljenja


koje odgovaraju našim uslovima sredine i proučiti metode ožiljavanja onih
vrsta, kod kojih to teško uspeva.
1) Upoznavanje metoda vegetativnog razmnožavanja


Pri izvođenju radova primenjivane su poznate metode kalemljenja, u
staklarama i na otvorenom prostoru, kao i u raznim vremenskim razmacima,
od aprila do septembra. U periodu od 1959. do 1964. godine sve naučne ustanove
izvršile su mnogobrojna kalemljenja. Kao plemke upotrebljavane su fertilne
grane. Rezultati u odnosu na procenat primljenih kalemova bili su različiti.


Rezultati kalemljenja četinarskih vrsta su bolji nego rezultati kalemljenja
lišćarskih vrsta. Ovo nam je ukazalo na potrebu da iznađemo metode za savlađivanje
teškoća kod kalemljenja lišćara.




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Ma da je kalemljenje u staklarama dalo vrlo dobre rezultate sa 64% do
100% primljenih kalemova pojedinih četinarskih vrsta, ovaj način se sve manje
primenjuje. Razlozi su za sada materijalne prirode. Kod kalemljenja četinara
na otvorenom prostoru bolji uspesi su postignuti u humidnim predelima (SR
Slovenija, SR Hrvatska) nego u aridnim (SR Makedonija). Primanje kalemova
na slobodnom prostoru kod Picea abies pojedinih godina iznosi u SR Sloveniji,
SR Hrvatskoj i SR Bosni i Hercegovini 68—86% a u SR Makedoniji samo
13—27%. Kod Abies alba ti su iznosi 78—92% odn. 32—70%. Kod Pinus nigra
u prvim dvema republikama rezultati su bili 68—76% a u SR Makedoniji samo
6—21%, itd. Uticaj suhoće vazduha odn. nedostatka relativne vlage na procenat
primanja vidi se iz prednjih brojeva. To su dokazali i ogledi izvršeni u SR
Makedoniji na dve nadmorske visine — na 640 i 1250 m nadmorske visine.
Kod Abies alba i Pinus peuce u sušnoj godini na prvoj nadmorskoj visini primilo
se 32 odn. 21% kalemova a na drugoj 70 odn. 52%. U vlažnoj godini uspeh je
bio na manjoj nadmorskoj visni 54 odn. 56% a na većoj 79 odn. 92%. U obe
godine kalemljenje je vršeno u isto vreme, u drugoj polovini aprila.


Kod kalemljenja četinara vršeni su ogledi sa plemkama sečenim tokom
zime i čuvanim u jamama sa ledom i sa plemkama sečenim neposredno pred
kalemljenje (april). Rezultati su bili različiti. Ipak je prosečno bolji rezultat
bio sa plemkama sečenim zimi, ako su pravilno čuvane do upotrebe.


Kod lišćara kalemljenje je vršeno na bukvi, hrastovima, brezi, jasenu, javoru,
orahu, bagremu, lipi i mečijoj lesci. Pokazalo se da uspeh zavisi od razvojnog
stadijuma (fenofaze) podloge, metoda i vremena kalemljenja i individualnih
osobina matičnih stabala. Kod oraha dobijeni su zadovoljavajući rezultati
kalemljenjem zelenih plemki (SR Srbija).


U uslovima aridne klime kod pojedinih vrsta postignuti su različiti uspesi
sa različitim metodama kalemljenja. Tako je kod molike dobijen veći procenat
prihvatanja metodom »kozja noga« i »srčevina na kambijum« nego sa drugim
metodama a kod jele su postignuti bolji rezultati bočnim spajanjem na neprevršenim
podlogama.


Vršeni su ogledi sa ožiljavanjem reznica evropskog ariša, (SR Hrvatska).
Prvi rezultati ukazuju na mogućnost daljeg rada.


2) Formiranje živih arhiva


Radovi su u početnom stadijumu. Sade se podloge, vrše prva kalemljenja
i dr. Skoro sve istraživačke ustanove pristupile su formiranju živih arhiva.
Jugoslavenski institut za četinjače u Jastrebarskom formira centralni arhiv za
četinare. Već su posađeni klonovi od Larix leptolepis i Pseudotsuga taxifolia
var. viridis na površini od 1 ha. Institut za šumarstvo i drvnu industriju u
Beogradu osniva dva arhiva od bukve na površini od 1,0 ha, dva arhiva cd
4 vrste hrastova sa 1,0 ha i jedan arhiv od bagrema od 0,10 ha. Institut za
šumarstvo i drvnu industriju u Ljubljani osnovao je i osniva žive arhive od
bukve — sa 12 kalemenih stabala, od smrče sa 56 kal. stabala od crnog bora sa
33 kal. stabala i od jele sa 45 kal. stabala, Šumarski institut u Skoplju osniva
male arhive sa 5 do 10 klonova od jele, molike, belog bora, breze, bukve, lužnjaka
i platana. Zavod za topole u Novom Sadu osnovao je populetum sa 175
raznih vrsta i tipova topola. U 1964. godini počeo je osnivanje salicetuma od 45
vrsta i tipova vrba.


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3) Formiranje semenskih plantaža


Sa podizanjem semenskih plantaža počelo se 1960. godine. Nešto intenzivnije
radi se poslednjih godina. Objekti koji se sada podižu treba da budu eksperimentalni
i uzor za operativne. U tabeli br. 5 dati su podaci o semenskim plantažama,
po vrstama drveća i ustanova koje ih podižu.


Do sada je potpuno završena jedino semenska plantaža od Fraxinus angustifolia
Vahl., u kojoj su radovi počeli 1960. godine. U ostalim radovi su u toku.
Plantaže se osnivaju sa 20 do 30 klonova koji se raspoređuju uobičajenim metodama.
Podloge se sade u razmaku 5x5i7x7m . Biraju se lokacije gde
odgovara toplota i osvetljenost staništa. Interesantan je predlog da se semenske
plantaže podižu izvan prirodnog areala vrsta tj. u južnim reonima naše
zemlje zbog povoljnije svetlosti i toplote i mogućnosti veće produkcije semena
(11).


Podignuti objekti počinju da izazivaju interesovanje kod privrednih organizacija
pa se očekuje skoro osnivanje operativnih semenskih plantaža.


4) Formiranje drvoreda za komparaciju


Prve komparativne klonske zasade podigao je Zavod za topole u Novom
Sadu 1958. g. Isti Zavod je do danas osnovao ukupno 30 klonskih testova od
topola iz sekcije Aegeiros u kojima se proveravaju stotine domaćih i stranih
klonova. Sem toga osnovana su 3 testa sa belom topolom i 5 testova sa hibridima


P. tremula x P. tremuloides. Isto tako osnovano je 15 testova sa oko 30 klonova
vrba većinom domaćih a manjim delom uvezenih iz Argentine. Zavod za topole
i Institut za četinjače u Jc.strebarskom osnivaju komparatavne zasade za proučavanje
hibridnog materijala i zračenog materijala. Zavod za topole osniva testove
sa potomstvima Leuce topola sa ciljem utvrđivanja uzgojnih vrednosti
pojedinih hibridnih familija, genetske vrednosti roditelja i mehanizma nasleđivanja.
Već je osnovano 11 takvih testova sa 24 hibridne familije.
Na oglednim poljima Zavoda za dendrologiju i genetiku Šumarskog fakulteta
u Zagrebu proverava se 120 klonova raznih vrba, 42 klona poljskog jasena,
2 klona hrasta lužnjaka, 2 klona crne johe i 5 klonova od nizinskog bresta.
Proučava se i klonski materijal četinara. — Pinus nigra, P. silvestris, P. leucodermis,
Picea omorica i Abies alba.


IV GENERATIVNO RAZMNOŽAVANJE


Generativno razmnožavanje (kontrolisano, spontano) je osnovni zadatak
selekcionera kada radi na oplemenjivanju šumskog drveća. Ovim radom mogu
se dobiti nove, kulturne rase šumskog drveća sa osobinama koje čovek planski
modelira. Kontrolisano ukrštanje vrši se među jedinkama iste ili raznih vrsta
šumsokg drveća. Pošto u našim vrstama šumskog drveća vlada osobito veliki
strukturalni individualni varijabilitet i frakcionisanje polazne forme na relativno
maloj teritoriji na biotipove i ekotipove, nastoji se da se hibridna snaga
pri ukrštavanju među jedinkama iste vrste iskoristi.


1) Unutarvrsna hibridizacija


Kod primene ove metode ukrštanja nastoji se kombinovati dobre osobine
jednog roditelja sa dobrim osobinama drugog roditelja pripadnika iste vrste.
Izvedeni ogledi keristiće za upoznavanje vrednosti plus stabala proveravanjem




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 159     <-- 159 -->        PDF

njihovog potomstva kao i za proučavanje pojave hibridne snage u potomstvu.
Istraživanja su u toku.


a) Unutarvrsna hibridizacija kod četinara. Ove radove počeli su Zavod za
četinjače u Jastrebarskom i Zavod za dendrologiju i genetiku Šumarskog fakulteta
u Zagrebu 1957. godine. Kontrolisano ukrštanje vršeno je kod sledećih
vrsta: Larix decidua, Pinus nigra i Pinus silvestris.


Šumarski institut u Skoplju otpočeo je 1962. g. unutarvrsno ukrštanje
kod Pinus peuce, Pinus silvestris var. hamata i Abies alba (peristerska jela).
Kod ovih vrsta izdvojene su forme na bazi boje generativnih organa (ženskih i
muških cvetova), boje i teksture kore, boje i dužine iglica i dr. morfoloških
karakteristika. Razne kombinacije ponavljaju se potreban broj puta. U odnosu
na boju generativnih organa ukršteni su sledeći parovi: crvena (violet) x crvena
(violet); crvena (violet) x zelena (žuta); zelena (žuta) x crvena (violet) i zelena
(žuta) x zelena (žuta). Proizvodnja hibridnog semena i sadnica je u toku. Vrši
se proučavanje semena: dimenzije, težina, boja, dimenzija krilaca i njihova
obojenost.


Izvedeni su početni ogledi sa samooplodnjom kod Pinus peuce i P. silvestris
var. hamata. Prvi ogledi su pokazali da su ove vrste izrazito autosterilne.


b) Unutarvrsna hibridizacija kod lišćara — Radovi na kontrolisanom ukrštanju
tek su u toku. Međutim seme od spontanog i subspontanog ukrštanja
plus stabala korišćeno je za proizvodnju sadnica radi proveravanja potomstva.


Zavod za dendrologiju i genetiku Šumarskog fakulteta u Zagrebu radi na
oplemenjivanju Quercus robur primenom unutarvrsnog kontrolisanog oprašivanja
Q. robur f. tipica x Q. robur f. tardissima. Proizvedene su i sadnice od
spontane i subspontane hibridizacije ove vrste.


Na oplemenjivanju lišćara rađeno je manje nego kod četinara. Međutim tu
se izuzima rad sa topolama i vrbama o čemu ćemo posebno govoriti.


U Institutu za šumarstvo i drvnu industriju u Beogradu izveden je ogled
sa samooplodnjom kod bagrema. Pokazalo se da je ova vrsta vrlo izrazito autosterilna.
Ista pojava ispitivana je na lipama pa se pokazalo da su i one u
izvesnoj meri autosterilne jer se dobije veliki procenat šturog semena (43).


Istraživači sa Šumarskog fakulteta u Beogradu utvrdili su da je monecijska
crna topola u znatnoj meri autofertilna. Upotrebljivost semena je 20 dana, posle
čega znatno opada. Inbridovani klijavci su vrlo neotporni prema gljivičnim
oboljenjima upoređeni sa kontrolnim klijavcima crne topole. Inbriding se u
prvoj generaciji na 2 godišnjim biljkama odražava opadanjem opšte produkcije
biljne materije. Morfološke razlike se nisu pojavile.


2) Međuvrsna hibridizacija


Radovi na međuvrsnoj hibridizaciji bili su većeg obima,
a) Međuvrsna hibridizacija četinara izvršena je u više naučno-istraživačkih
ustanova.


U Institutu za četinjače u Jastrebarskom i Zavodu za dendrologiju i genetiku
Šumarskog fakulteta u Zagrebu pristupilo se ovim radovima 1957. godine.
Iz ukrštanje Larix decidua x L. leptolepis proizvedeno je nekoliko stotina
hibridnih biljaka (15); ukrštanje Picea omorica x P. sitchensis dalo je 50 hibridnih
sadnica (20); iz ukrštanja Pinus nigra x P. densiflora dobijeno je 270
sadnica; P. nigra x P. halepensis dali su 12 klijavaca, od kojih je u životu ostalo




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4 (ovi hibridi u juvenilnom stadijumu liče na majku P. nigra). Najzad iz ukrštanja
Pinus silvestris x P. densiflora dobijene su 3 hibridne biljke.


Kod Šumarskog instituta u Skoplju otpočelo se sa međuvrsnom hibridizacijom
na materinskim stablima Pinus peuce. P. silvestris var. hamata, P. strobus
i Abies alba (Peristerska jela) 1962. godine. Izvedena su sledeća ukrštanja:
Pinus peuce x P. strobus, P. peuce x P. monticola, P. peuce x P. excelsa, P.
peuce x P. Lambertiana i P. peuce x P. griffithii. Od ovih ukrštanja dobijeno
je seme od dva uroda. Ove godine očekuje se proizvodnja hibridnih klijavaca.
Ukrštanja A. alba x A. cephalonica, A. alba x A. concolor, A. alba x A. grandis,


A. alba x A. pinsapo i A. alba x A. Nordmanniana dala su mali broj hibridnih
sadnica koje se ispituju. U 1964. godini izvršena su ukrštanja Pinus strobus
x P. monticola, P. strobus x P. peuce, P. silvestris var. hamata x P. nigra, P.
silvestris var hamata x P. halepensis. Kod ukrštanje P. silvestris var. hamata
x P. nigra uzete su individue sa jednako obojenim muškim i ženskim cvetovima
(crveno x crveno i žuto x žuto). Ovi radovi se nastavljaju.
b) Međuvrsna hibridizacija lišćara, kao i unutarvrsna hibridizacija kod ovih
vrsta izvršena je u neznatnom obimu.


Zavod za dendrologiju i genetiku Šumarskog fakulteta u Zagrebu postavio
je oglede u vezi sa oplemenjivanjem lipa. U 1964. godine izvršena su međuvrsna
ukrštanja između Tilia platyphylos, T. cordata i T. tomentosa. Od istih vrsta
proizvedene su biljke iz spontane i subspontane hibridizacije.


Institut za šumarstvo i drvnu industriju u Beogradu izvršio je kontroliranu
hibridizaciju domaćeg i crnog oraha. U prirodi su primećena 4 stabla — spontani
hibridi između domaćeg i crnog oraha, koji ispoljavaju znake heterozisa.


3) Hibridizacija topola i vrba


U našoj zemlji najviše je rađeno na hibridizaciji u rodu topola.
Šumarski fakultet u Beogradu među prvima počeo je da radi na hibridizaciji
topola 1957. godine (26, 27, 30, 31, 32). Izvedena su ukrštanja između
raznih vrsta topola. U periodu između 1957. i 1960. godine proizvedeno je ukupno
57.298 hibridnih sadnica. Kontrolisanom hibridizacijom u vodenim kulturama
i na dubećim stablima proizvedeno je 65 kombinacija sa 28.490 hibridnih biljaka
a korišćenjem semena spontane i subspontane hibridizacije dobijeno je


29.808 hibridnih biljaka od 11 kombinacija. Kao ženske roditelje upotrebljeno
je 25 a kao muške 19 formi topola, ukupno 44 forme. Od toga broja pripada
sekciji Aegeiros 34 a sekciji Leuce 10 formi. Na osnovu visinskog i debljinskog
prirasta, pravnosti debla, rasporeda bočnih grana, otpornosti prema bolestima,
lakoći ožiljavanja reznica i asimilacione površine odabrano je samo 26 klonova
za dalje gajenje i istraživanje. Od njih je 14 klonova krajem prve godine imalo
veći visinski i debljinski prirast od standarda Populus euroamericana cv. robusta.
Zavod za topole u Novom Sadu otpočeo je ove radove 1961. godine i izvodi
uglavnom međuvrsna ukrštanja kod topola i vrba. Posle slabih rezultata kontrolisanog
ukrštanja crnih topola sa euroameričkim hibridima (x serotina, x
robusta, x marilandica) prešlo se na kontrolisano ukrštanje Populus nigra (domaća)
x P. deltoides.


Kod topola iz sekcije Leuce provode se uglavnom međuvrsna kontrolisana
ukrštanja: Populus alba x P. grandidentata, P. canescens x P. grandidentata, P.
alba x P. tremuloides, P. canescens x P. tremuloides, P. tremula x P. tremuloideš,
koja daju dobre rezultate. U manjoj meri vrše se ukrštanja P. alba x P.
tremula, P. canescens x P. tremula i P. tremula x P. tremula (udaljene rase).


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Sa kontrolisanim ukrštanjem vrba počelo se 1964. godine. Ovaj rad je
usmeren na dobijanje međuvrsnih hibrida između vrsta visokih stablašica:
Salix alba x S. nigra, S. alba x S. sachalinensis. Postignuti su dobri rezultati.
Godišnje se ostvaruje po više od 1000 kombinacija i uzgaja 10 do 15 hiljada
hibridnih biljaka. Sakupljanje semena od spontanog oprašivanja počelo je
1956. godine. Sakuplja se seme sa plus stabala topola iz sekcije Leuce i od
vrba. Iz ovog semena godišnje se proizvodi oko 10.00 spontanih hibrida.


Zavod za dendrologiju i genetiku Šumarskog fakulteta u Zagrebu u 1964.
godini izveo je kontrolisano ukrštanje Salix fragilis x S. alba. Sem toga proizveo
je potomstvo od spontane i subspontane hibridizacije Salix alba. Isto tako
proizvedena su subspontana potomstva hibrida Salix rubens Schranka.


Iz prednjeg se vidi da su ogledi i operativni radovi na ukrštanju topola
znatno napredovali i već daju rezultate.


V ISTRAŽIVANJA POJAVA MUTACIJA


I u ovoj oblasti počelo se radom sa ciljem da se veštački izazovu mutacije.
U prirodi kod nas do sada mutacije nisu nađene ali ima indikacija da
one postoje te bi ih trebalo otkrivati.


1) Primena jonizujućih zračenja


Ogledi na veštačkom izazivanju naslednih promena vršeni su delovanjem
gama zraka i radioaktivnog fosfora na semenski materijal polen, stadije gametogeneze,
reznice i dr.


Zavod za dendrologiju i genetiku Šumarskog fakulteta u Zagrebu otpočeo
je 1960. godine sa zračenjem semena Pinus silvestris, P. halepensis, P. excelsa,
Larix decidua. Primenjene su doze od 50—20.000 r. Proučavan je uticaj raznih
doza na klijavost semena i na brzinu rasta. Manje doze dale su bolje rezultate
u pogledu klijanja i brzine rasta. (10, 14 i 16). U cilju dobijanja mutacija i pojave
heterozisa kod unutarvrsne i međuvrsne hibridizacije četinara i radi savlađivanja
inkompatibilnosti kod ukrštanja Pinus nigra x P. silvestris izdvojeno
je zračenje generativnih organa. Zračen je i polen Larix decidua, Pinus silvestris,


P. nigra i Picea omorika, kojim su oprašivani nezračeni ženski cvetovi istiR
vrsta (unutarvrsna hibridizacija). Takođe je vršeno međuvrsno ukrštanje između
Pinus nigra, P. silvestris i P. brutia zračenim polenom. Doze zračenja bile su
od 50 do 10.000 r. Od kombinacije P. nigra x P. silvestris dobijene su biljke sa
polenom zračenim sa 200, 800 i 12C0 r. Izvršeno je i zračenje nekoliko klonova
P. nigra i P. silvestris u stadij umu gametogeneze. Uporedo sa ovim ogledima
sa zračenjem vrše se i citološka istraživanja. Ispitivanja su u toku (16, 19, 22).
U Institutu za šumarstvo i drvnu industriju u Beogradu otpočela su istraživanja
dejstva jonizujućih zračenja na seme vanredno smolovitih stabala crnog
bora. Utvrđeno je da se u izvesnim slučajevima može stimulirati visinski i debljinski
prirast. Potomstvo raznih stabala različito reaguje na iste doze zračenja.
Doze preko 3.000 r. izazivaju patuljast rast (38 i 39).


Na Šumarskom fakultetu u Beogradu proučavano je dejstvo jonizujućeg
zračenja na potomstvo iz zračenog semena nekih vrsta topola. Maksimalno povećanje
prirasta zapaženo je pri dozama od 1.000 r. Kod doza preko 1.000 r.
ističe se opšta tendencija zaostajanja u porastu nadzemnih delova i korenovog
sistema (34). Proučavano je i potomstvo iz semena crnog bora tretiranog sa
P-32 i utvrđeno da se depresija sposobnosti nicanja povećava sa količinom


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apsorbovanog aktiviteta P-32 u semenu i da su morfološke promene na 1 godišnjim
biljkama tretiranih serija jako izrazite (44). Isto tako proučavano je
dejstvo jonizujućeg zračenja na potomstvo iz zračenog semena bukve i drugih
lišćara. Istraživanja su u toku.


U Institutu za šumarstvo i drvnu industriju u Ljubljani zračenja su otpočela
od 1957. godine. Vršena su tretiranja na pröklijalo i mirujuće seme smrče,
bukve i ariša. Obuhvaćeno je 18 različitih provenijencija i 15 potomstva diferencijalnih
fenotipova odnosno formi. Upotrebljavane su doze od 500 do 2000


r. Određene doze pokazale su stimulativno dejstvo na proširenju varijacione
amplitude. U prošeku ariš je ispoljio veću osetljivost od smrče, a smrča različitu
obzirom na nadmorsku visinu provenijencije.
U Šumarskom institutu u Skoplju zračeno je seme Pinus peuce, P. nigra.


P. silvestris var. hamata, Abies alba sa dozama od 100 do 5000 r. Prva zapažanja
ukazuju na to da manje doze bolje deluju na procenat klijanja, da je
letalna doza za borove 5.000 r. a za Abies alba 2.000 r. i da potomstva različitih
stabala različito reaguju u odnosu na procenat klijanja pri istim dozama. Istraživanja
su u toku.
U Zavodu za dendrologiju i genetiku Šumarskog fakulteta u Zagrebu u
toku 1963. i 1964. godine zračene su reznice Salix i S. viminalis. Primenjene su
doze od 50 do 50.000 r. Utvrđeno je da je letalna doza 5.000 r. Istraživanja su
u toku.


2) Primena kolhicina


Ogledi na veštačkom izazivanju naslednih promena vršeni su i tretiranjem
semena i vršnih pupoljaka kolhicinom.


U Zavodu za dendrologiju i genetiku Šumarskog fakulteta u Zagrebu vršeni
su ogledi tretiranjem sa kolhocinom semena od Pinus nigra i P. silvestris. Doza
je bila 0,1 do 0,2% a potapanje je trajalo od 1 do 8 dana. Proizvedene biljke
se proučavaju. Seme od Larix decidua tretirano je 0,05—0,4% rastvorom kolhicina
u trajanju od 6 do 48 časova. Proizvedene biljke se proučavaju. Takbđe
su tretirane vegetacione vršike od Salix alba 0,05 do 0,2% rastvorom kolhicina
u trajanju od 6 do 119 časova. Tretirane biljke se proučavaju.


U Zavodu za topole u Novom Sadu od 1962. godine vrše se ogledi na stvaranju
autotetraploidnih topola natapanjem izbojaka rasta kolhicinom. U 1962.
godini tretirane su biljke euroameričkih topola 1-212 i 1-154 a u 1963. godini
biljke 40 različitih vrsta odn. hibrida iz sekcija Aegeiros, Leuce i Tacamahaca.
Znaci poliploidije (morfološke promene na listu) konstatovane su na 36 individua.
U toku su citološka proučavanja ovih biljaka.


U Instituu za šumarstvo i drvnu industriju u Ljubljani otpočeli su ogledi
od 1956. godine a u prvom redu u vezi sa opštim zadatkom istraživanja bukve.
Upotrebljene su doze od 0,05 do 0,1% s kojim je tretirano 15 različitih provenijencija
bukve a osim toga još i 20 potomstva individualno opredeljenih fenotipova.
Tretiranjem je bilo obuhvaćeno proklijalo i mirujuće seme. Citološka
istraživanja još su u toku.


VI ZAKLJUČAK


Veliki deo teritorije Jugoslavije je šumsko zemljište pa je za privredu zemlje
od velikog značaja da se proizvodnja na tom zemljištu poveća po obimu i poboljša
po kvalitetu. Određeni doprinos u tome očekuje se i od primene u gajenju
šuma dostignuća šumarske genetike i selekcije.




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 163     <-- 163 -->        PDF

Posle drugog svetskog rata stvorene su materijalne i kadrovske mogućnosti
pa su se radovi u ovoj oblasti počeli organizovano i koordinirano razvijati
posle 1959. godine. U dosadašnjem radu izvestan prioritet davan je četinarima,
topolama i vrbama. Prvim, jer je u njima Jugoslavija deficitarna a drugim jer
u Jugoslaviji postoje vrlo povoljni uslovi za njihovo gajenje a rezultati selekcije
i oplemenjivanja kod njih mogu biti vrlo brzi. Međutim nisu zanemarene ni
druge vrste lišćara pa se radilo na bukvi, hrastovima, jasenu, javoru, lipi, brezi,
platanu, bagremu, orahu.


Primenjene su poznate metode selekcije, kontrolisanog ukrštanja i veštačkog
izazivanja naslednih promena. Ispitivana je tehnika vegetativnog razmnožavanja,
osnovani su neki živi arhivi i semenske plantaže i proizveden eksperimentalni
materijal za dalji rad.


U referatu su date informacije o karakteru istraživanja i ustanovama kod
kojih se vrše kao i popis radova u kojima su objavljeni detalji o dosadašnjim
radovima i rezultati.


Na osnovu izvršenih radova, stečenih iskustava i ciljeva obnove naših šuma
budući radovi u ovoj oblasti trebali bi da se usmere na:


— reviziju izabranih plus stabala, stvaranje njihovog jedinstvenog registra,
proveravanje njihovih genetskih osobina preko potomstva i iznalaženje mogućnosti
za očuvanje genetskog materijala u prirodnim šumama;
— proučavanje nižih taksonomskih jedinica šumskog drveća iz aspekta njihovog
privrednog značaja;
— produbljivanje problema unutarvrsnog i međuvrsnog ukrštanja lišćara
i četinara u cilju masovni je proizvodnje hibridnog materijala za podizanje intenzivnih
kultura;
— laboratorijske radove kojim treba da se rešavaju problemi vezani za
specifične naše uslove za rast i razviće šumskog drveća.
Protekli period vremena ima uglavnom obeležje postavljanja osnove za
dalja genetička i selekciona istraživanja, savlađivanje metoda rada snabdjevanje
laboratorijskom i tehničkom opremom kao i stvaranjem kadra za ova istraživanja.
U narednom periodu usmeriee se radovi na direktnom oplemenjivanju
šumskih vrsta i sazdavanju kultiviranih sorti šumskog drveća koje bi imale
veći prviredni značaj.


THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF FOREST GENETICS AND SELECTION IN YUGOSLAVIA


I. INTRODUCTION
The territory of Yugoslavia stretches between 40"5f and 46°53) N., and 13°23´
and 30(>02´ E. totalling an area of 255,804 sq. km., of which Z&Io are forests or forest
lands. The highest summit is Triglav (2,863 m.) situated in the Julian Alps (SR
Slovenia). There occur the Mediterranean, moderate continental and continental
types of climate with numerous local variants. There is also a great variety of parent
material and soil types.


The present plant cover of this country is the result — besides the mentioned
factors — also of the special development through centuries, so that its tree flora
is rich in species which belong to the Eurosiberian, Pontian, Central European and
East Mediterranean plant populations. This forest vegetation of Yugoslavia is grouped
into a great number of associations, subassociations and facies. The distribution
of the most important tree species is as follows: Fir and Spruce 22%, other coniferous
species 4Vo; Beech 50"Vo, Oak 14B/», other broadleaved species 10l0/o.




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 164     <-- 164 -->        PDF

A great number of autochthonous species, subspecies, varieties, races (ecotypes
and biotypes), as well as an abundance of allochthonous coniferous and broadleaved
species offer great possibilities for the development of investigations in the field of
forest genetics and selection The forest genetics is a very young biological branch
in this country. Its development may be divided into two periods. In the first period,
which begins after World War II and the liberation of this country, thanks to
a rapid economic rise and development of the scientific thought, a selection and
specialization of the staff as well as the purchase of equipment for the work in this
field was possible. In this period until 1959 there were carried out fragmentary, sporadic
and non-systematic investigations. In the SR of Croatia and Serbia the first
beginnings date back to 1952 and in other Republics still later to 1956—1958. The
second period begins with 1959. It is characteristic of initiating a systematic selection
of themes, laboratory and field investigations. In the forest institutes were formed
genetical departments and laboratories, while at forestry faculties were introduced
lectures on Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Improvement. Thanks to all this from
1959 until now a conspicuous progress in this branch has been achieved: surmounted
were the initial difficulties and laid out a good basis for further work, in order to
avoid unnecessary overlapping in the work. To this have contributed an adequate
organization and division of work between the interested institutions, and a mutual
assistance, specialization and perfecting of experts in this country and abroad, as
well as the accepting of the joint problems by the collaborators from the individual
Republics. The reflection of all this is today´s number of the staff, the height of
invested means and the modernicity of the problems dealt with.


The problems under investigation in the institutes and at faculties in the individual
Republics are formulated in the projects which are financed through the Research
Work Funds of the Federation or individual Republics. To this system of
financing is bound also the system of collaboration in which one institution is acting
as the bearer of the project (theme), while the others are collaborating. Every
year the collaborators hold together with the bearer of the project the meetings
(indoors or outdoors) in individual Republics, at which are discussed the results
achieved, the justifiability of the tasks set up, and on this occasion there were made
amendments of the programme and the distribution of means. In 1964, within the
framework of the Community of Forest Research Institutions of Yugoslavia was
founded a Section for Genetics and Improvement of Forest - tree Species.


In further explanation will be stated in short the achievements of this country
in this field. It is clear that in such a short time no especially great results could be
achieved but laid down were good foundations for further work.


II. MASS AND INDIVIDUAL SELECTION
The first aim of our work in the selection of forest - tree species was to catch
up with the advanced foreign practice in the production of seed for the establishment
of new forests and reconstruction of degraded natural stands. As we had no
own previous experiences we had to begin from the beginning. Foreign experiences
helped us to avoid errors. It should also1 be said that only research institutions are
still concerned with the selection of forest - tree species while economic organizations
merely sense the usefulness of this work and accept it. In any case progress
in this respect will depend on the benefits which the forestry practice will have
from selection.


With respect to the earlier non - controlled collecting of seed, the production
of seed in selected stands represents at events a step ahead, which is also accepted
by practice. The selection of plus trees remains still in the domain of research institutions
within the framework of the programme for forest tree improvement.


1) Selection of seed stands


The scope and efficiency of these works were different in individual Republics
in dependence of the available staff. Research institutions took an active part in
this by giving instructions or by direct carrying out of all works. In most cases the
specialists from research institutions have been performing revisions of the proposals
submitted by the foresters in practice. This action was amply supported both




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 165     <-- 165 -->        PDF

by the Yugoslav Advisory Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, and the Republic
Chambers of Economy. The mentioned Centre has already issued the first Yugoslav
register of coniferous seed stands.


a) Seed stands of coniferous species


The selection of these stands is in the main finished. This work was first organized
by the Institute for Forestry and Timber industry of the SR of Slovenia. The
selection of these stands in the SR of Serbia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, and Macedonia
was also carried out with the aid of forest institutes. In the SR of Croatia
this was done by the Forest Seed Control Station, Rijeka, and in the SR of Montenegro
by the Republic Centre for the Development of Agriculture and Forestry, Titograd.


In the enclosed Table 1 is given a survey of coniferous seed stands. Their total
reduced surface amounts to 7,136 ha., which surely does not mirror the actual needs
and still less an optimum distribution of the particular species. The actual requirements
and the progeny tests of individual stands will efect the necesary corrections
into this register.


The major part of these stands are State — owned. During the separation of
seed stands it was endeavoured to choose pure stands, but this was not always
possible. In the selected stands of Fir, Spruce and Aleppo Pine there occur 0.2—0.4
admixtures of other species. All these stands belong to the type of the »normal«
seed stands. Almost all stands of the autochthonous species are of natural origin.
Seed stands of the allochthonous species will contribute to the extension of the
area of these species.


b) Seed stands of broadleaved species


Selection of these stands began two years ago, and in the individual Republics
it is in progress or in its final stage. Of less interest is this selection to forestry
practice because of fewer requirements of seeds of broadleaved species in this
country. Also the research institutions could not devote themselves completely to
this work because of other tasks. In the selection of these sands were engaged the
forest institutes of the SR of Slovenia, Serbia, Macedonia, Bosnia and Hercegovina.
The effect of the selection done so far can be seen in Table 2. If comparing the data
in Tables 1 and 2 it is visible that the area of the thus far selected seed stands of
broadleaved species is considerably smaller than the corresponding area of coniferous
species, although the broadleaved species are considerably better represented
in this country.


In the previous work on the separation of seed stands the individual criteria
of the selecionist were more expressed. In the further work efforts will be made to
make them uniform. Taken as a whole this work has contributed that the previous
collectiong seeds of forest trees in this country was replaced by an organized production
of these seeds of high quality. This higher degree of production of forest
seeds has been accepted as a transition to an up-to-date production of selected seed
in seed orchards. The legal regulations soon to be issued should make it possible
to implement this system in its entirety. In the individual Republics a division of
districts with respect to the individual provenances has already been executed or
is being prepared. Established were also modern organizations for the production
of seed and planting stock.


2. Selection of plus trees
Specialists from forest institutes and faculties have initiated the selection of
plus trees in order to obtain the initial material for further work on the improvement
of forest trees. The selection of plus trees on the basis of phenotype pointed
at the complexity of this problem in consideration of the relative genotypic value
of a phenotype, the objectives of selection (biological or technological characters,
production of wood), and to the significance of the lower systematic units within
the species for further work on its improvement.


The forests of this country, taken as a whole, contain proportionally more »wild«
elements than the forests of some other European country. The climatic, geological,




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 166     <-- 166 -->        PDF

penological, orographical and hydrographical conditions in this country are so varying
and rich in transitions that even at a distance of only one hundred metres
the conditions for growth and development of forest trees may differ considerably.
This occurs especially in the areas of a labile climate where in time intervals of
only 10 years the sequences of years with the elements of the Mediterranean or
continental climate are alternating. The consequence of all this is a great genetic
variability of our forest - tree species, i. e. their richness in ecotypes and biotypes.
The natural variability of our forest trees has not yet been enough studied and it
appeared more and more as a problem at the occasion of selection of seed stands
and plus trees. However, all the mentioned difficulties could not be an obstacle to
the selection of plus trees because in the further work in this field there will be
effected the necessary amendments and corrections thanks to the new knowledge
and the findings in the nature.


a) Plus trees of coniferous species


Bearing in mind the objective of tree improvement and the small occurrence
of conifers in our forests we started first with the selection of plus trees of these
species. This work was done by the internal and external collaborators of the Institute
for Conifers at Jastrebarsko (Croatia), the Institutes for Forestry and Timber
Industry in Ljubljana, Sarajevo, and Beograd (Slovenia, Bosnia and Hercegovina,
and Serbia), and of the Forest Institute in Skopje (Macedonia). These plus trees are
phenotypcs selected mainly on the basis of biological characters. A smaller number
was selected on the basis of a superior growth rate (in Slovenia: 26 trees of Larix
decidua, 7 trees of Pinus nigra, 2 trees of Picea abies). On the basis of the technological
characters the selection was performed before all in the species of Picea abies
(growth-ring uniformity — resonance timber), Larix decidua (quality of wood), Pinus
silvestris (with small and high proportion of heartwood), etc. Selected were
also trees of Pinus nigra, P. peuce, and P. silvestris with an above-average resin
production (in Serbia and Macedonia). The latter trees are not given in the enclosed
Tab. 3.


In Table 3 can be seen the number of selected plus trees of the principal species
of autochthonous and allochthonous conifers according to the individual Republics.
Their total number is 1,061. The selection of plus trees is not finished because all
forests of coniferous species were not yet surveyed.


b) Plus trees of broadleaved species


To the selection of plus trees of broadleaved species was paid by the researcn
institutions a sufficient attention, in conformity with the general and economic significance
of these species in the individual Republics. This selection was carried
out by the collaborators of the Institutes in Beograd, Sarajevo, and Skopje, as well
as by the Institute for Dendrology and Genetics of the Forestry Faculty Zagreb.
The plus trees were selected on the basis of phenotype and biological characters
In Table 3 is visible the number of plus trees according to the Republics and species.
Their total number is 476 which is less than the corresponding number of coniferous
trees. Also the selection of plus trees of broadleaved species has not yet
been finished.


c) Plus trees of Poplars and Willows


The selection of plus trees of Poplars and Willows was carried out by the collaborators
of the Poplar Institute, Novi Sad (Serbia), the Institute for Dendrology and
Genetics of the Forestry Faculty, Zagreb (Croatia), and the Institutes in Ljubljana
and Skopje. Although the foreign selected clones of Poplars and Willows contributed
considerably to the increase of the wood production of these species in this
country, we started to study the native species of these two genera and to select
their plus trees, which are already used and will further be used as an initial material
for improvement. In this work conspicious results have been achieved by investigators
of the Poplar Institute in Novi Sad and of the Forestry Faculties in Beograd
and Zagreb.




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 167     <-- 167 -->        PDF

In Table 4 is given a survey of the selected plus trees of the mentioned species
acording to the Republics. The selection started with Black Poplar. It plus trees
were used first for the production of clone material and later as the parent trees
for controlled hybridization. The selection of plus trees of white Poplar, Aspen and
Willows is in progress. The selection was carried out chiefly in the plains. In the
mountain regions selection has only started.


A great number of plus trees have already been transferred into living archives,
viz. populeta and saliceta. The value of the plus trees of Poplars and Willovs
is being checked by testing their vegetative and generative offsprings.


3. Investigation of the lower taxonomic categories
The basis and the most important method for the improvement of forest trees
is represented by the selection of individuals in natural forests, which from the genetic
standpoint are promising for the further work on inprovement. Such individuals
still exist in natural forests and we have only to find out and describe them,
and to study the hereditary stability of their biological and commercially useful
characters. In this country a sysstematic study of the natural variability of forest —
tree species has practically commenced with the selection of plus trees. Initial investigations
in this field are to be assigned to the Institute for Dendrology and Genetics
of the Forestry Faculty in Zagreb (1, 2, 3, 4) and the Forest Institute, Skopje
(73, 74, 76, 77). Such investigations are given more and more place also in the programmes
of other research institutes.


Previous investigations of Socts Pine (Pinus silvestris L.) were indicative of the
existence of a lowland type and a mountain type. In the mountain type were found
and studied the following forms: the first displaying platelike bark (and high percentage
of heartwood), the second with long-scale bark (and small percentage of
heartwood), and a third form with small — scale bark and a strongly pronounced
pyramidal crown (elite form) which does not suffer from snow (Macedonia, Slovenia).


In Austrian Pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) was proved the occurrence of the subspecies
Pallasiana, dalmatica, gočensis, ssp. gočensis var. illyrica, as well as of the ecotypes
on limeston and silicate substrata, and of the biotypes with different crown forms
and differences in the rhythm of the growing seasons (Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia).


In Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.) were used also transitional forms between Greek
Fir and European Fir, as well as forms with rough and smooth bark. Investigated
were concurrently the couses of the dieback of European Fir, and the occurrence
of its natural ecotypes and mutans. On the territory of the SIR of Slovenia has been
established a catastrophic dying back of this species over an area of 30,000 ha. In
progress are investigations to explain this phenomenon genetically, and attempts
have been made for the selection of disease — resistant individuals. Found was an
ecotype which, for the time being, manifests a resistance to dieback. This ecotype
exhibits a greater increment which exceeds considerably the normal mean increment
of Fir in this area.


In Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) are studied forms which distinguish
themselves with respect to the type of branching, then forms displaying uniform
growth rings (resonance wood), and forms with a rough and smooth bark, as well as
the occurrence of natural mutants (Slovenia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Macedonia).


In European Larch (Larix decidua Mill.), whose natural range is confined to a
smaller area (alpine portion of Slovenia), are performed compass investigations
with the aim to establish the specific morphological and physiological characteristics
of its geographical race called »Bloody Larch«.


In Macedonian Pine (Pinus peuce Griseb.) were noted special ecotypes occurring
on limestone and silicate parent material, as well as early and late phenotypes (Macedonia).


In the broadleaved species too, more and more the phenomenon of natural variability
has been noted. In this sense the study of Beech, Oaks, Lime-trees, Birch,
Walnut, Locust-tree, etc. has been initiated.


In Beech (Fagus silvatica L., Fagus moesiaca Maly (Czech), it was established
that to a greater extent it belongs to the species of Balkan Beech. Its subdivision




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 168     <-- 168 -->        PDF

into lowland, mountain and subalpine ecotypes is being investigated. Initial systematic
investigations of physiological and morphological characteristics of its geographical
and site races and ecotypes have been carried out in the Institute, Ljubljana.
Established was a correlative interdependence between the growth rhytm
and the site altitude of the provenance. Noted was the early and lat phenotype, as
well as the transition types between the Oriental Beech and the European Beech
(Slovenia, Macedonia, and Serbia).


In Oaks (Quercus sp.) the situation is more complicated. Investigations are being
carried out in the SRs of Serbia, Croatia and Macedonia. In Birches were observed
Betula verrucosa and B. pubescens. their transition forms, the types distinguishing
themselves by the form of bark, as well as the types exhibiting gibbosities of cubiform
structure, as are well known in individuals occurring in northern regions (Serbia,
Macedonia). Also in Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) special attention
was paid to the trees with curled grain. Carried out were also morphological and
physiological investigations to determine the ecotypes (Bosnia and Hercegovina,
Slovenia).


In native Black Poplars (Populus nigra L.) varying with respect to the stem form
and resistance to Melampsora sp. was observed (Poplar Institute, Novi Sad). In
Aspen were noted forms varying in the bark colour (black, grey, green, and white),
or in the resistance to decay (Forest Institute, Skopje, and Forestry Faculty, Beograd).
In progress is a study of the population of White Willow (Salix alba L.) and
the variability of technological qualities of its wood (Poplar Institute, Novi Sad).
Described was the phenomenon of monoelinous flowers in Black Poplar and hybrid
Poplars (Forestry Faculty, Beograd; Poplar Institute, Novi Sad; Forest Institute
Skopje). Obtained was the first inbred generation of a monoecious tree of Black
Poplar (Forestry Faculty, Beograd). On these problems started to work besides the
mentioned research institutions also others (3, 26, 46, 52, 71).


At the end of this chapter we wish to point out that in this report are given
only information without mentioning detailed results and conclusions which are
presented in the published ´works. Many investigations are in progress and thus
they were only mentioned. At any rate we aimed to describe the activities and investigation
being still in the initial phase which should be extended and completed
with up-to-date methods. It would, however, be too modest not to mention that
in this short period were achieved fairly satisfactory results thanks to the efforts
and self-sacrifice of those who joined this work with interest and enthusiasm.


III. VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION
In the initial works on the improvement of forest trees in this country research
institutions were faced with the problem of vegetative propagation. In order to
establish living archives, seed plantations, tree alleys for comparison, to test the
genetic characters, etc., it was necessary to become acquainted with the methods
of grafting which suit our environmental conditions, and to study the methods of
rooting of those species which are difficult-to-root.


1. Methods of vegetative propagation
In the execution works were applied the well known methods of grafting in
greenhouses and in the open, as well as in various periods of time from April to
September. In the period 1959—1964 all research institutions were carrying out numerous
graftings. As scions were used fertile branches. The results in relation lo
the percentage of successful grafts were varied. The grafting results with coniferous
species were better than with the broadleaved ones. This was suggestive of
the necessity to find out methods for overcoming the difficulties when grafting
broadleaved species. Although the grafting in greenhouses gave very good results
with 64V» to lOO´Vo of established grafts in particular conifers, this procedure is used
less and less. The reasons for the moment are financial. Whc-n grafting conifers in
the open better results were achieved in humid (Slovenia, Croatia) than in arid regions
(Macedonia). Successful grafts in the open in Picea abies during the individual
years in the SRs of Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Hercegovina amount to
68—86!Vo, while in Macedonia only to 13—27´Vo. In Abies alba these percentages are




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 169     <-- 169 -->        PDF

78—92´% and 32—70% respectively. In Pinus nigra in the first two Republics the
established grafts were 68—70%, while in Macedonia only 6—21´%, etc. The effect
of air dryness, viz. insufficient relative air humidity on the percentage of successful
grafts is visible from the above-mentioned numbers. This was proved also by experiments
in the SR of Macedonia at two elevations, viz. 640 and 1250 m. In Abies
alba and Pinus peuce in a dry year successful were at the first elevation 32% and
21´% grafts, while at the second 70% and 52% respectively. In a humid year at the
altitude of 640 m. the percentage of successful grafts was 54% and 55%, while at
1250 m. 79% and 92% respectively. In both the mentioned years the grafting was
carried out at the same time, i. e. in the second half of April.


In conifer grafting work were made experiments with scions cut during winter
and kept in pits with ice, as well as with scions cut just prior to the grafting (April).
The results varied. However, on an average, better results were achieved with winter-
cut scions if they were correctly preserved until use.


In the broadleaved species the grafting was done on Turkish Hazel (Corylus
colurna L.). It become evident that the success depended on the developmental stage
(phenophase) of the rootstock, the grafting method and time, and the individual characters
of the parent trees. With Walnut were obtained satisfactory results when
grafting green scions (Serbia).


Under the conditions of an arid climate achieved were in individual species
varying successes with different methods of grafting. Thus with Pinus peuce was
obtained a higher percentage of successful grafts with the »side grafting« and the
»whip grafting« than with other methods, while with Fir better results were achieved
by means of sied union without cutting off the stock top.


Experiments were made to root cuttings of European Larch (Croatia). The first
results are suggestive of possibilities for further work.


2. Formation of living archives
The works are in the initial stage. Planted was the understock, performed were
the first graftings, etc. Almost all research institutions took up the formation of
living archives. The Institute for Conifers, Jastrebarsko, is forming a central living
archives for coniferous species. Planted are already clones for Larix leptolepis and
Pseudotsuga taxifolia var. viridis on an area of one hectare. The Institute for Forestry
and Timber Industry, Beograd, is establishing two Beech archives of 1.0 ha.,
two Oaks archives of 1.0 ha., and one Locust-tree archives of 0.1 ha. The Institute
for Forestry and Timber Industry, Ljubljana, has laid out living archives of 12
grafted Beech, trees, 56 grafted Spruce trees, 33 grafted Austrian Pine trees, and
45 grafted Fir tees. The Forestry Institute, Skopje, in establishing small-sized archives
from 5 to 10 clones of Fir, Macedonian pine, Birch, Pedunculate Oak, and Oriental
Plane. The Poplar Institute, Novi Sad, established a Populetum with 175 various
Poplar species and types.


3. Establishment of seed orchards
The laying out of seed orchards began in 1960, and a somewhat more intensive
activity has been felt in recent years. The seed orchards being established are intended
to be of an experimental character and serving as a model for forestry practice.
In Table 5 are given data on seed orchards by tree species and the institutions
which are establishing them.


Until now completely finished is only the seed plantation of Fraxinus angustifolia
Vahl. in which works started in 1960. As to other seed plantations, works are
in progress. The seed orchards are laid out for 20—30 clones arranged by the usual
methods. The rootstocks are planted in 5 x 5 m. and 7 x 7 m. spacings. Chosen are
locations with adequate warmth and insolation of the site. Interesting was a suggestion
to lay out the seed orchards outside the natural range of the species, i. e. in
southern regions of this country because of more favourable light and warmth conditions
and the possibility of a higher seed production (11).


167




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The established seed orchards commence to attract the interest of economic organizations
so that the establishement of operative seed orchards is expected soon.


4. Establishment of tree alleys for comparison
The first comparative clonal plantings were raised in 1948 by the Poplar Institute,
Novi Sad. The same Institute has laid out so far a total of 30 clonal test plantings
of Poplars from the section Aegeiros in which are being tested hundreds of
native and foreign clones. Besides, established were 3 tests with White Poplar and
15 tests with P. tremula x P. tremuloides hybrids. In the same way were laid out
15 tests with about 30 clones of Willows mostly indigenous and to a lesser extent
imported from the Argentine. Poplar Institute, and the Institute for Conifers are
establishing comparative plantings for the study of the hybrid material and the
irradiated material. The Poplar Institute is laying out test plantings with progenies
of Leuce-Poplars with the aim. to determine the silvicultural values of "the individual
families, the genetic values of parents, and the mechanism of inheritance.
Established were already 11 of such tests with 24 hybrid families.


In the experimental plots of the Institute for Dendrology and Genetics of the
Forestry Faculty, Zagreb, are being tested 120 clones of various Willows, 42 clones
of Narrow-leaved Ash, 2 clones of Pedunculate Oak, 2 clones of Black Alder, and
5 clones of Common Elm. Studied is also the coniferous clonal material, i. e. Pinus
nigra, P. silvestris, P. leucodermis, Picea omorika, and Abies alba.


IV. GENERATIVE REPRODUCTION
The generative reproduction (controlled, spontaneous) is the basic task of a selectionist
when working on the improvement of forest trees. Through this work we
can obtain new, improved races of forest trees with the properties modelled by man
according to plan. Controlled crossing is carried out between individuals of the same
or different forest-tree species. Taking into consideration that in the forest-tre species
of this country there prevail especially high constitutional individual variability
and the fractionation of the initial form on a relatively small area in biotypes and
ecotypes, efforts were made to utilize the hybrid vigour and the crossing of individuals
of the same species.


1. Hybridization within species
By this method of crossing we try to combine the good characters of one parent
with the good qualities of the other parent partner of the same spec´es. The experiments
peri´omed will be useful to know the value of plus trees by testing their
progeny as well as to study the occurrence of the hybrid vigour in the progeny.
Investigations are in progress.


a) Hybridization within coniferous species. These works have
been started by the Institute for Conifers, Jastrebarsko, and the Institute for Dendrology
and Genetics of the Forestry Faculty, Zagreb, in 1954. A controlled crossing
was carried out in Larix decidua, Pinus nigra and P. silvestris.


The Forest Institute, Skopje, started in 1962. an intraspecific crossing in Pinus
peuce, P. silvestris var. hamata, and Abies alba (Fir of the Mt. Perister). In these
species were selected the forms on the basis of the colour of generative organs (female
and male flowers), and other morphological features. Various combinations
are laid out in the necessary number of replications. In relation to the colour of
the generative organs crossed were the following pairs: red (violet) x red (violet),
red (violet) x green (yellow), green (yellow) x red (violet), and green (yellow) x green
(yellow). The production of hybrid seed and planting stock is in progress. The seeds
were studied as to their size, weight, colour, dimensions of wings and their colotiration.


Carried out were initial experiments with self-fertilization in P. peuce and P.
silvestris var. hamata. The first trials have shown for these species to be markedly
self-sterile.




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 171     <-- 171 -->        PDF

b) Hybridization between broad leaved species. Works on controlled
crossings are hardly in progress. However, the seed of spontaneous and sub-
spontaneous crossing of plus trees has been used for the production of the planting
stock intended for progeny tests.


The Institute for Dendrology and Genetics of the Forestry Facility, Zagreb, is
engaged in the improvement of Quercus robur by applying intraspecific controlled
pollination in Q. robur f. typica x Q. robur f. tardissima. Produced were plants
from the spontaneous and subspontaneous hybridization of this species.


Less work has been done in the domain of broadleved species improvement than
in conifers. However, here is not meant the work on Poplars and Willows, which
will be discussed separately.


In the Institute for Forestry and Timber Industry, Beograd, was carried out
an experiment with the self-fertilization in Locust-tree. It was shown that this species
is self-sterile. The same phenomenon was investigated in Lime-trees, and it
become apparent that they too are to some extent self-sterile because a high percentage
of unfruitful seed could be obtained (43).


Investigators from the Forestry Faculty, Beograd, established that the monoecious
Black Poplar is to a great extent self-sterile. The usability of the seed lasts
20 days after which it decreases considerably. Its inbred seedlings are very susceptible
to fungal diseases if compared with the control seedlings of Black Poplar. The
inbreeding in the Fi generation in 2-year-old plants keeps continuing by a decrease
of the total production of vegetable matter. There appeared no morphological differences.


2. Hybridization between species
Works on the interspecific hybridization were on a wider basis.


a) Hybridization between coniferous species was carried out
in several research institutions.


The Institute for Conifers, Jastrebarsko, and the Institute for Dendrology and
Genetics of Forestry Faculty, Zagreb started with these activities in 1957. From the
crossing of Larix decidua x Larix leptolepis were produced several hundred hybrid
plants (15); the crossing of Picea omorika x P. sitchensis gave 50 hybrid plants (20);
from the crossing of Pinus nigra x P. densiflora were obtained 270 plants; P. nigra
x P. halepensis gave 12 seedlings of which survived 4 individuals (in juvenile stage
these hybrids resemble to the female parent of P. nigra). Lastly, from the crossing
of Pinus silvestris x P. densiflora were obtained 3 hybrid plants.


The Forest Institute, Skopje, commenced in 1962. an interspecific hybridization
with the mother trees of Pinus peuce, P. silvestris var. hamata, P. strobus, and Abies
alba (Fir of the Mt. Perister). Performed were the following crossings: Pinus peuce
x P. strobus, P. peuce x P. monticola, P. peuce x P. excelsa, P. peuce x P.
Lambertiana, and P. peuce x P. griphithii. From these crossings were obtained seeds
of two seed crops. This year we expect the production of hybrid seedlings. Crossings
of Abies alba x A. cephalonica, A. alba x A. concolor, A. alba x A. grandis, A. alba
x A. pinsapo, and A. alba x A. nordmanniana gave a few hybrid plants which are
under test. In 1964. were effected crossings of Pinus strobus x P. monticola, P. strobus
x P. peuce, P. silvestris var. hamata x P. nigra, P. silvestris var. hamata x P.
halepensis. In the crossing of P. silvestris var. hamata x P. halepensis. In the crossing
of P. silvestris var. hamata x P. nigra were chosen the individuals with equally
coloured male and female flowers (red x red, and yellow x yellow). These work´s
are being continued.


b) Hybridization between broadleaved species, as well as the
hybridization within these species have been carried out to a small extent.


The Institute for Dendrology and Genetics of the Forestry Faculty, Zagreb, laid


out experiments in connection whith the improvement of the Lime-tree. In 1964.


were effected interspecific crossings between Tilia platyphyllos, T. cordata, and T.


tomentosa. From the same species were produced the plants through spontaneous


and subspontaneous hybridization.


169




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The Institute for Forestry and Timber Industry, Beograd, carried out a controlled
hybridization of the native Walnut and Black Walnut, which show signs of
heterosis.


3. Hybridization of Poplars and Willows
In this country most efforts have been expended on the hybridization of the
genus Populus.


The Forestry Faculty, Beograd, was among the first to begin work on the hybridization
of Poplars in 1957 (26, 27, 30, 31, 32). Performed were crossings between
different species of Poplars. In the period 1957—1960 was produced a total of
57,298 hybrid plants. Through controlled hybridization in water cultures and on standing
trees, 05 combinations with 28,490 hybrid plants were produced, while by
using the seed from spontaneous and subspontaneous hybridization 29,808 hybrid
plants from 11 combinations were obtained. As female parents were used 25 Poplar
forms and as male parents 19 forms, i. e. a total of 44 forms. Of this number there
belong to the section Aegeiros 34 forms and to the section Leuce 10 forms. On the
basis of the height and diameter increments, stem straightness arrangement of lateralbranches,
resistance to diseases, ease of rootability of cuttings, and the assimilating
surface, chosen were only 26 clones for further cultivation and investigation.
Of these, 14 clones produced at the end of the first year a greater height and diameter
increment than the standard type Populus euramericana cv. robusta.


The Poplar Institute, Novi Sad, started with these works in 1961, and carried
out were mainly interspecific crossings in Poplars and Willows, After the poor results
of controlled crossing of Black Poplars with European — American hybrids
(x scrotina, x robusta, x marilandica) work was continued with controlled crossing
of Populus nigra (native) x P. deltoides.


In the Poplars from the section Leuce were carried out in the main controlled
interspecific crossings: Populus alba x P. grandidentata, P. canescens x P. grandidentata,
P. alba x P. tremuloides, P. canescens x P. tremuloides, and P. tremula x


P. tremuloides, which gave good results. To a lesser extent were made crossings of
P. alba x P. tremula, P. canescens x P. tremula, and P. tremula x P. tremula (remoteraces).
The first steps in the controlled crosing of Willows were made in 1964. This
work aims at obtaining interspecific hybrids between the arborescent Willows, i. e.:
Salix alba x S. nigra, S. alba x S. sachalinensis. The results achieved were satisfactory.
Realized were more than a hundred combinations and raised 10,000—15,000
hybrid plants yearly. The collection of seeds from spontaneous pollination began in
1956: The seed is collected from plus trees of Leuce-Poplars and from Willows.
From this seed are produces ca. 10,000 spontaneous hybrids.


The Institute for Dendrology and Genetics of the Forestry Faculty, Zagreb,
carried out in 1964. controlled crossing of Salix fragilis x Salix alba. Besides, progeny
was also produced by spontaneous and subspontaneous hybridization of Salix
alba.


From what precedes visible that the experiments and practical work on the
crossing of Poplars are considerably developed and has already been productive
of results.


V. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE OCCURRENCE OF MUTATIONS
Also in this field the work has been started with the aim to induce mutations
artificially. In this country, in nature, no mutations have been found so far, but
there are indications for their existence so that attempts should be made to discover
them.


1. Application of ionizing radiations
Experiments for inducing artificially the hereditary changes have been made by
the action of gamma rays and radioactive phosphorus on seed material, pollen, gametogenesis
stages, cuttings etc.


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The Institute for Dendrology and Genetics of the Forestry Faculty, Zagreb,
started in 1960 with irradiation of seed of Pinus silvestris, P. halepensis, P. excelsa,
Larix decidua Applied were the doses from 50 to 20,000 r. Studied was the effect
of different doses on the germination of the seed and en the rate of growth. Lower
doses gave better results in respect of germination and growth rates (10, 14, 16). In
order to obtain mutations and the occurrence of heterosis in intraspectific and interspecific
hybridization of coniferous species, and to surmount the incompatibility
barriers at the crossing of Pinus nigra x P. silvestris, irradiated were the generative
organs. Irradiated was also the pollen of Larix decidua, Pinus silvestris, P. nigra
and Picea omorika by means of which were pollinated non-irradiated female flowers
of the same species (intraspecific hybridization). Carried out was also on interspecific
crossing between Pinus nigra, P. silvestris and P. brutia by means of irradiated
pollen. The irradiation dosages were 50 to 10,000 r. From a combination of P.
nigra x P. silvestris were obtained plants with pollen irradiated with 200,800 and
1,200 r. Several clones of P. nigra and P. silvestris in the stage of gametogenesis
were also irradiated. Parallel with these irradiation experiments also cytological
investigations were made. Tests are in progress (16, 19, 22).


The Institute for Forestry and Timber Industry, Beograd, initiated investigations
on the effect of ionizing radiations on the seed of highly resinous stems of the
Austrian Pine. It was established that in certain cases the height and diameter increment
can be stimulated. The progeny of various trees react differently to the
same doses. Doses exceeding 3,000 r cause dwarfing (38, 39).


At the Forestry Faculty, Beograd, was studied the effect of ionizing radiation
on the progeny originated from the irradiated seeds of several Poplar species. The
highest increase of increment was noted in doses of 1,000 r. In doses exceedig 1,000


r. a general tendency of stagnation in growth of both the overground parts and the
root system was conspicuous (34). Studied was also the progeny from the seed of
Austrian Pine treated with P-32 and it was established that depression of the germinative
power increases with the quantity of absorbed activity of P-32 in the seed,
and that the morphological changes on one-year-old plants of treated series were
highy pronounced. The progeny originated from the irradiated seed of Beech and
other broadleaved species was also studied as to the effect of ionizing radiation.
Investigations are in progress.
The Institute for Forestry and Timber Industry, Ljubljana started with radiation
experiments in 1957. Treated were germinated and dormant seeds of Spruce,
Beech and Larch. In the experiment were included 18 various provenances and 15
progenies of differential phenotypes and forms. The doses applied were 500 to 2,000


r. Certain doses a stimulating effect on the increment, while in definite series an
action towards the expansion of variation amplitude was significant. On an average,
Larch manifested a higher sensitivity than Spruce, while the latter exhibited
a varying sensitivity with respect to the altitude of the provenance.
At the Forest Institute, Skopje, the seed of Pinus peuce, P. nigra, P. silvestris
var. hamata, and Abies alba was treated with irradiation doses of 100 to 5,000 r.
The first observations indicate that the weaker doses have a better effect on the
germination percent; further, that the lethal dose for Pines is 5,000 r and for Abies
alba 2,000 r. and that the progenies, of different trees react in a different manner
as to the germination percentage under the same doses. Investigations are in progress.


At the Institute for Dendrology and Genetics of the Forestry Faculty, Zagreb,
were made trials by irradiating the cuttings of Salix alba and S. viminalis. Aplied
were doses of 50 to 50,000 r. The lethal dose was 5,000 r. Further investigations are
in progress.


2. Application of colchicine
Experiments on the artificial induction of hereditary changes have been made
by treating seed and terminal buds with colchicine.


At the Institute for Dendrology and Genetics of the Forestry Faculty, Zagreb,
the seed of Pinus nigra and P. silvestris were treated with 0.1—0.2´Vo doses of colchicine
while the immersion lasted from 1 to 8 days. Produced plants are under


171




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study. The seed of Larix decidua was treated with 0.05—0.4´°/o solution of colchicine
during 6 to 48 hours. The produced plants are being studied. Treated were also
the growing points of Salix alba with 0.05—0.3 solution of colchicine for 6 to 9 hours.
Further study of the treated plants is under way.


Since 1962 have been made at the Poplar Institute, Novi Sad, attempts to produce
autotetraploid Poplars by sprinkling the growing points with colchicine. In
1962 were treated plants of European — American Poplars I—212 and I—154, and
in 1963 40 different species and hybrids of the sections Aegeiros, Leuce and Tacamahaca.
The symptoms of polyploidy (morphological changes on the leaf) have been
established in 36 individuals. Under way is a cytological study of these plants.


At the Institute of Forestry and Timber Industry, Ljubljana, the experiments-
began in 1956, in the first place in connection with the general plan of Beech research
work. Treated were with 0.05—O.P/o doses 15 different Beech provenances,
and in addition 20 progenies of the individually specified phenotypes. The treatment
comprised germinated and dormant seed. Cytological investigations are still in progress.


V. CONCLUSION
Forest areas represent a large part of the territory of Yugoslavia, and therefore
it is of great significance for the economy of this country that the production on
these areas be improved both by volume and quality. A definite contribution to this
is also expected from the application in silviculture of the achievements of forest
genetics and selection.


After Worls War II material and staff facilities were created, and thus the works
in this special branch of forestry began to develop in an organized and coordinated
manner after 1959. In the work done so far a certain priority was given to coniferous
species, Poplars and Willows. Justification for this lies first in that Yugoslavia lacks
in coniferous wood, and second, that there exist very favourable conditions for the
cultivation of Poplars and Willows, and, in addition, the results in the selection and
improvement of the latter two species may be rapid.


Applied were the well-known methods of selection, controlled crossing and artificial
induction of hereditary changes. Tested was the technique of vegetative
propagation, established were several living archives and seed plantations, and the
experimental material for further work was produced.


In this report is given information about the character of investigations, and
about institutions which are carrying them out, and a list of papers in which are
published details and results of previous works.


On the basis of the executed works, acquired experiences, and the objectives
for the renovation of forests of this country, the future works in the domain of forest
genetics and tree improvement should aim at:


— revision of the selected plus trees, establishment of a uniform register for
them, verification of their genecit characters through progeny tests and finding
out of possibilities for the preservation of the gene pool in natural forests;
— study of lower taxonomic units of forest trees from the aspect of their economic
significance;
— deepening of the problem of intraspecific and interspecific crossing of broad-
leaved and coniferous species with the objective of mass production of hybrid
material for the establishment of intensive cultures;
— laboratory works, which should make possible to solve the problems connected
with the specific conditions in this country for the growth and development
of forest-tree species.
The past period of time has in the main the character of setting up a basis for
further genetic and selection research, mastering the working methods, provision
of laboratory and technical equipment, as well as the formation of staffs for planned
investigations. In the next period the works will be concentrated on the direct improvement
of forest-tree species and building-up of cultivated types of forest trees,
which should have a greater economic significance.


172




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Individualna selekcija


Tabelarni pregled plus stabala četinara i lišćara
Individual selection (Coniferous and broadleaved species)


Tab. 3


o


c
-a


,3


1.
2
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
Nazi v vrst e
četinar a
w
. >
CO a
CD >
O CD
CO cj
" S-.
o
d
CD
M
o
0
a
inr^ ° K 60
CO CO « s,
cob co
CO ffi
r o
8,2
COS j
a
COO
fe 3
CO ´-s
Abies alba 13 35 1 80 48 — 177
Picea abies 14 29 54 120 21 — 238
Picea omorika — 24 — — — — 24
´Pinus nigra 32* 32 13 8 31 — 116
ssp. Laritio 17 17
ssp. Pallasiana — — — — 10 — 10
Pinus silvestris 64** 10 10 68 11 — 163
ssp. hamata — — — — 20 — 26
Pinus peuce — — — — 30 — 30
Pinus strobus 40 — 19 — — — 59
Larix europaea 38* — 41 — — — 79
Larix leptolepis — — 23 — — — 23
Pseudotsuga taxifolia 63** 6 30 — — — 99
Ukupno : 281 136 191 276 177 — 1061
Nazi v vrst e
1 i š č a r a
Fagus silvatica — 70 — — 46 — 116
Quercus sessil. — 20 — — 21 — 41
Quercus pedunculata 14 20 — — 5 — 39
Quercus conferta — 2 — — — — 2
Quercus peduncul. — — — — 15 — 15
Quercus cerris — 20 — — — — 20
Acer pseudoplatanus — — — — 16 — 16
Ulmus carpinifolia 8 8
Fraxinus angustif. 40 40
Alnus glutinosa 4 — — — — — 4
Alnus incana — — — — 2 — 2
Junglans regia — 9 — — — — 9
Robinia pseudoacacia — 17 — — — — 17
Betula verrucosa — — — — 33 — 33
Platanus orientalis — — — — 27 — 27
Tilia grandifolia — — — — 8 — 8
Castanea vesca — — — — 7 — 7
Corylus colurna — 7 — — — — —
Ukupno : 66 165 — 65 180 — 476


* u SR Bosni i Herceg. 8 satabala
** u SR Bosni i Heerceg. 32 stabla
* u SR, Sloveniji 25 stabala
** u SR Sloveniji 25 stabala
175




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Individualna selekcija — Individual selection (Poplars and Willows)


Tabelarni prikaz plus stabala topola i vrba
Tab. 4


P o p u 1 u s Sali x
Socijalistička
republika
i wo
. > bo
ra .QX!
S-, W
1. Hrvatska — — — — — — 20 1 2
2. Srbija 32 — 12 11 8 — 17 — —
3. Slovenija — — — — — — — — —
4. Bosna i Hercegovina — — — — — — —, — —
5. Makedonija 10 15 — 2:1 — — — — —


Ukupno: 42 15 12 32 37 1


Semenske plantaže — Seed orchards
Tabelarni prikaz početka osnivanja i veličine semenskih plantaža
Tab. 5


Godina poSocijalistička
VRSTA ha četka
USTANOVA republika osnivanja


Institut za lesno in gozd-Abies alba 1,0 1963
no gospodarstvo — Larix leptolepis 1,0 1964
Ljubljana Slovenija Larix europea 1,6 1963
Pinus nigra 1,0 1964


Institut za šumarstvo i Pinus nigra 1,0 1963
drvnu industriju — Pinus strobus 2,3 1963
Beograd Srbija Picea omorika 1,0 1963


P. douglasii 1,0 1963
Jugoslavenski institut za
četinjače — Jastrebarsko Hrvatska Larix decidua 3 1962


Šumarski fakultet —
Zagreb Hrvatska Fraxinus angustifolia 1,14 1960


Šumarski institut — Pinus peuce 1,10 1962
Skopje Makedonija Pinus strobus 1,10 1962
Abies alba 1,10 1962


Q. pedunculata 1,10 1964
F. silvatica 1,10 1964
B. verrucosa 1,10 1964
P. orientalis 1,10 1964
Šumarski fakultet — Picea abies 1,0 1963
Sarajevo Bosna i Herc. Pinus silvestris 1,0 1963




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 177     <-- 177 -->        PDF

SPISAK SARADNIKA — LIST OF COLLABORATORS


koji rade na genetici i selekciji
SR Hrvatska:


— na Šumarskom fakultetu (Zagreb):
1. Dr. ing. Mirko Vidaković, van. prof.
2. Mgr. Branka Bevilacqua, asistent
3. Ing. Ante Krstinić, asistent
4. Ing. Josip Karavla, asistent
— U Institutu za četinjače (Jastrebarsko):
1. Dr. ing. Mirko Vidaković, šef Odsjeka za genetiku
2. Ing. Franjo Mrva, asistent
SR Srbija:


— na Šumarskom fakultetu (Beograd):
1. Ing. Aleksandar Tucović, docent
— u Institutu za šumarstvo i drvnu industriju (Beograd):
1. Ing. Branislav Marić, savetnik
2. Ing. Milutin Jovancvić, asistent
3. Ing. Milan Dudić, saradnik
4. Ing. Vojislav Valčić, asistent
— U Zavodu za topole (Novi Sad):
1. Dr. ing. Lajoš Zufa, saradnik
SR Slovenija:


— U Institutu za gozdno in lesno gospodarstvo (Ljubljana):
1. Ing. Miran Brinar, saradnik
SR Bosna i Hercegovina:


— U Šumarskom fakultetu (Sarajevo):
1. Dr. ing. Milorad Jovančević, docent
2. Ing. Vojislav Guzina, asistent
SR Makedonija:


— U Institutu za šumarstvo (Skopje):
1. Ing. Božidar Ničota, viši naučni saradnik
2. Ing. Mile Stamenkovski, asistent
3. Ing. Milena Gorgeva, asistent
4. Ing. Niko Popnikola, upravnik stan. Bitolj
SPISAK


Publiciranih stručnih i naučnih radova iz domena genetike i selekcije
u SFR Jugoslaviji
List of publications from the field of forest genetics and tree improvement


1. Popis radova članova Zavoda za šumarsku genetiku i đendrologiju Šumarskog
fakulteta Zagreb
. Vidakovi ć M.: Prilog poznavanju oblika vrste Pinus halepensis Mili. (Beitrag
zur Kenntnis der Formen von Pinus Halepensis Mill.) Šum. List, 1, 1953 pp.
11—18.


. Vidakovi ć M.: Prilog poznavanju anatomije iglica kod nekih srodnih borova
(Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Nadelanatomie einiger verwandter Kieferarten), Glasnik
za šum. pokuse, 11, 1953 pp. 163—179.


. Vidakovi ć M.: Oblici crnog bora u Jugoslaviji na temelju iglica. (Forms of
Pinus nigra in Yugoslavia on the basis of anatomical structure of needles),
Glasnik za šum. pokuse, 13, 1957 pp. Ill—248.




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 178     <-- 178 -->        PDF

4.
Vidakovi ć M.: Značenje anatomske građe iglica kod svojata crnog bora u
Jugoslaviji. (The importance of anatomical strukture of needles in Austrian pine
races (Pinus nigra Arn.) in Yugoslavia). Šum. List 5/6, 1955, pp. 244—253.
5.
Vidakovi ć M.: Značenje češera, sjemenki i njihovih krilaca za sistematiku i
određivanje proveniencije crnog bora. (Significance of cones, seeds and their
wings for taxonomy and determination of Pinus nigra provenances), Glasnik za
šum. pokuse, 14, 1960, pp. 383—437.
6.
Vidakovi ć M.: Investigations on the Intermediate Type between the Austrian
and the Scots Pine. (Untersuchungen über eine Intermediärform zwischen Pinus
nigra ssp. austriaca und Pinus silvestris). Silvae Genetica, 1, 1958, pp. 12—18.
7.
Vidakovi ć M.: Genetika u šumarstvu. (Genetics in forestry). Sum. List, 3/4
1956, pp. 103—110.
8.
Vidakovi ć M.: Oplemenjivanje šumskog drveća u Danskoj i Švedskoj. (Forest
Tree Breeding in Danmark and Sweden), Šum. List, 1957, pp. 432—442.
9.
Vidakovi ć M.: Oplemenjivanje ariša. (Breeding of Larch). Šum. List, pp.
447—454.
10.
Vidakovi ć M.: Utjecaj gama zraka na klijavost sjemena nekih konifera.
(Effect of gamma rays on the germination of certain conifer seeds). Šum. List,
1960. pp. 235—244.
11.
Vidakovi ć M.: Sjemenske plantaže šumskog drveća. (Seed orchards of forest
trees). Jug. savetodavni centar za poljoprivredu i šumarstvo, Beograd 19Ü0
pp. 1—82.
12.
Vidakovi ć M.: Podizanje semenskih plantaža šumskog drveća. (Creation des
plantations pour la production des semences des arbres forestier). Topola, 19.
1961, pp. 7—9.
13.
Vidakovi ć M.: Anlage von Samenplantagen ausserhalb des natürlichen Areals
zum Zwecke der Steigerung der Samenproduktion. Soz. Forstwirtschaft,
Sonderheft: Forstl. Samenplantagen III, 1963, pp. 10—13.
14.
Vidakovi ć M.: Uticaj gama zračenja na rast biljaka nekih konifera. (Effect
of gamma rays on the growth of certain conifer plants). Šumarstvo, 7—9 1962,
pp. 325—338.
15.
Vidakovi ć M.: Novi prilog oplemenjivanju ariša. (A new contribution to
the breeding of Larch). Sum. List, 1/2, 1962, pp. 47—62.
16.
Bevilacqua B. — Vidaković M.: Effect of Gamma Rays on the Chromosomes
of the Somatic Cells Picea Abies Karst. Silvae Genetica, 2, 1963, pp.
41—46.
17.
Jurković M. — Vidaković M.: Prilog izučavanju vegetativnog razmnažanja
evropskog ariša. (A contribution to the study of the vegetative propagation
of Europaen Larch). Topola, I—VI, 1963, pp. 27—34.
13.
Vidakovi ć M.: Sjemenska plantaža poljskog jasena Fraxinus angustifolija
Vahl u Lipovljanima. (A seed Orchard of Narowleaved Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia)
at Lipovljani). Topola, I—VI, 1963. pp. 34—39.
19.
Vidakovi ć M.: Interspecific Hybridization of Several Pine Species from the
sub-genus Diploxylon Koehne. FAO-UNO, Rome, 1963. pp. 12—19.
20.
Vidakovi ć M.: Međuvrsno križanje Pančićeve omorike (Picea omorika)
(Pančić) Purkyne sa sitkanskom smrčom (Picea sitehensis) (Bong) Carr, (Interspecific
Crossing between) Picea omorika (Pančić) Purkyne and Sitka Spruce
(Picea Sitehensis (Bong) Carr.), Šumarstvo, 10/12, 1963, pp. 337—342.
21.
Krstinić A. — Vidaković M.: Prilog rješavanju problema uzgoja bijele
vrbe (Salix alba L). (4 contribution to the solution of the problem of cultivation
of White Willow-Salix alba L.). Topola, 44, 1964 pp. 11—16.
22.
Bevilacqu a B.: Značenje citoloških istraživanja u sadašnjoj fazi razvoja
šumarske genetike kod nas. (Significance of Cytologic Research in the present
Phase of Development of Forestry Genetics in this Country.) Šumarski list, 1—10,
pp. 390—399.
23.
Ka r a vi a J.: Prilog opisu nalazišta egzota i nekih (forma) naših autohtonih
vrsta na području nekih zagrebačkih parkova (Beitrag zur Beschreibung des
Vorkommens von Egzoten und einiger (Formen) unserer autohtoner Sorten auf
dem Gebiete einiger Parkanlagen in Zagreb.), Šumarski List 7, 1962, pp. 224—242.
178




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 179     <-- 179 -->        PDF

24.
Borza n 2.: Primjena radioaktivnog zračenja kod oplemenjivanja šumskog
drveća. (Anwendung radioaktiver Bestrahlung bei der Forstpflanzenzüchtung).
Šumarski List, 7—8, 1963. pp. 309—314.
25.
Krstini ć A.: Prilog razmnožavanju bijele vrbe (Salix alba L.) iz sjemena.
(A contribution to the propagation of whitewillov (Salix alba L.) from seed.)
Topola 42—43, 1964, pp. 8—12.
2. Popis radova članova sa Šumarskog fakulteta i Instituta za šumarstvo
i drvnu industriju u Beogradu
25.
Jovanović B. — Tucović A.: O jednoj topoli novoj za floru Jugoslavije.
(A new poplar for the Flora of Yugoslavia). Šumarstvo 3/4, 1957.
27.
J o v a n o v i ć B. — Tucovi ć A.: Hibridizacija topola u 1957. (Hybridition des
peupliers dans 1´ annee 1957), Topola br. 7, 1958.
28.
Jovanovi ć B. — Tucovi ć A.: Prilog poznavanju topola deliblatske pe.ščare
(Contribution a la connaissance des peupliers des sables de Deliblato), Gl.
Prir. Muz. K. 14, 1957 (Bui. du Mus. d´ Histoir Nat, Belgrade).
29.
Jovanović B. — Tucović A.: Zapažanja o dejstvu jonizujućeg zračenja na
seme i prirast P. virginiana Foug (Observations on the effect of ionizing radiation
to the seeds and to the increment of Populus virginiana Fcug). Šumarstvo,
9/10, 1959.
30.
Jovanović B. — Tucović A.: Novi hibridi topola u 1958. godini (Nouveaux
hybrides des peupliers produits en 1958) Bul. Mus. d´ Hist. Nat. Belgrade, 1960.
31.
Jovanović B. — Tucović A.: Novi hibridi topola u 1959 (Nouveaux hybrides
des peupliers, produits en 1959), Šumarstvo, 3/4 1960.
32.
Jovanović B. — Tucović A.: Neka naša iskustva sa hibridizacijom topola
(Quelques de nos experiences concernant 1´ hybridition des peupliers), Radovi
na istraživanju topola br. 2, 1960.
33.
Jovanovi ć B. — Tucovi ć A.: Taksonomska proučavanja jasike odnosno
topole na Deliblatskoj pješčari tzv. Bahofenove (Taksonomische Untersuchungen
der Zitterpappel (Pop. tremula L.) beziehungsweise der sogenannte Bahofenspappel
in Deliblatska peščara), Radovi na istr. topola br. 1, 1960, Beograd.
34.
Jovanović B. — Tucović A.: Zapažanja o dejstvu jonizujućih zračenja na
seme nekih euromeričkih topola (Observation relatives a 1´ effet du rayonnement
ionisant sur les semences de certaines peupliers euramericaines), Radovi
na izučavanju topola br. 1, Beograd 1960.
35.
Jovanovi ć A. — Tucovi ć B.: Prva inbriding generacija monecijskog stabla
crne topole (Populus nigra) u okolini Kosovske Mitrovice (Premiere inbriding
generation d´ un peuplier noir (Populs nigra) monoecique croisant aux environs
de Kosovska Mitrovica), Topola 42/43, Beograd 1964.
36.
Jovanovi ć B. — Tucovi ć A.: Pojava jednodomnosti i hermafroditnih cvetova
na nekim hibridnim topolama (L´ apparition des fleurs monoiques et hermafrođites
chez certains peupliers hybrides), Topola 44, 1964, Beograd.
37.
Dudi ć M.: Selekcija jako smolovitih borovih stabala (Selection of Pin trees
with nigh-yield capacity of gum), Šumarstvo, br. 1/2, 1955, Beograd.
38.
Dudi ć M.: Stimulisanje rastenja ponika crnog bora izazvano jonizujućim zračenjem
semena (Stimulative effect on growth of young seedlings of Pinus nigra
caused by ionizing radiation on seeds), Šumarstvo, 7/8, 1960.
39.
Dudi ć M.: Razviće potomstva vanredno smolovitih stabala Pinus nigra poreklom
iz semena tretiranog radioaktivnim kobaltom Co-60 (Development of
progeny of exceptionelly high gumyielding trees of Pinus nigra whose seed have
been treated with radioactive Cobalt 60), Bill. XXVI de 1´ Avad, Serbe des sc.
ets des arts, Beograd 1961.
40.
Mari ć B.: Prilog poznavanju crnog bora sa krečnjačkih litica istočne Srbije
(Contribution to the Knowledge of Austrian Pine from Salcerous Rocks in East
Serbia), Šumarstvo br. 1/2, 1959.
41.
Mari ć B.: Izdvajanje semenskih sastojina četinara u SR Srbiji (A propos de
la selection des peuplements a graine des essences resineuses en Serbie). Topola
25/26, 1962


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42.
Mari e B. — Pani c D.: Prilog poznavanju evropskog ariša u Srbiji (Contribution
a la connaissence du developpement du Meleze d´ europe en Serbie), Zbor
Inst. šum. i drv. ind. IV, Beograd, 1963.
43.
K o r a ć M. — Jovanovi ć M.: Samooplodnja kod roda Tilia (Autofecondation
chez le genre Tilia), Glas. Šum. Fak. br. 22, Beograd 1962.
44.
Nikoli ć Đ.: Promene na jednogodišnim mladicama crnog bora izazvane tretiranjem
semena radioaktivnim izotopom P-32, Šumarstvo 5—7, 1964.
45.
LazarevićZ. — Korać M.: O pojavi poliganije kod Populus tremula (Sur
1´ apparition de poligamie chez Populus tremula), Šumarstvo 1/2, 1958.
46.
Pecovi ć M.: Prve semenske plantaže četinara u Srbiji (Les premieres verges
a graine des coniferes en Serbie), Šumarstvo 1/2, 1964.
3. Popis radova članova iz Zavoda za topole Novi Sad
47.
Žuf a L.: Selekciza topola u Italiji i u Francuskoj, uporedni topolici u Italiji i
Francuskoj, Pub. jug. kos. kom. za topolu 1960. Beograd.
48.
Žuf a L.: Nova visokoprinosna sorta topola, (A new fastgrowing poplar clone).
Topola, no 22—23, 1961, Beograd.
49.
Žuf a L.: Kulture topola savremene Italije. Šumarstvo br. 1, 1962, Beograd.
50.
Zuf a L.: Gajenje i selekcija vrba u Argentini (Willow cultivation and selection
in Argentine). Topola, no 22—23, Beograd, 1961.
51.
Zuf a L.: Prva uporedna opažanja u uzgojnoj vrednosti nekih inostranih klonova
topola u Jugoslaviji (The first comparative observation on the value for
cultivation of some foreign poplar clones in Yugoslavia). Topola, no 28, 1962,
Beograd.
52.
Žuf a L.: Pojava dvopolnih cvetova kod vrsta P nigra i P. Thevestina (Appearance
of the hermaphrodite — flowers on the Populus thevestina Dode and Populus
nigra L. species, Topola no 28, 1962, Beograd.
53.
Zuf a L.: Rana dijagnostika u oplemenjivanju oblika stabla crne topole (Early
test in the improvement of stem-form of the black poplar; I FAO World consultation,
on Forest genetics, Stockholm, 1963.
54.
Zuf a L.: Glavne vrste vrba, njihova rasprostranjenja i staništa (The principal
willow — species, their extension and ecology; Topola, no 30—37, 1963, Beograd
55.
Zuf a L.: Genetika i oplemenjivanje vrba, (Willow genetics and improvement,
Topola, no 36—37, 1963, Beograd.
56.
Zuf a L.: Rasadnička proizvodnja vrba, (The willow´s nursery production, Topola,
no 36—37, 1963, Beograd.
57.
Žufa L: Drvna masa i prirast vrba (Yield and volume of willows, Topola, no
36—37, 1963, Beograd.
58.
Žuf a L.: Oplemenjivanje vrba u Institutu za semenarstvo i oplemenjivanje
šumskog drveća u Münchenu, (Improvement of willows in the Institut für Forstsamenkunde
und Forstpflanzenzüehtung München, Topola, no 36—37, 1963.
59.
Zuf a L.: Varijabilnosti i naslednosti oblika stabala crne topole (Pinus nigra)
srednjeg podunavlja; dizertacija 1964 (Variability and heritability of stem form
of P. nigra growing in valey of Danube) (Thesis).
60.
Zuf a L.: Vegetativno razmnažanje topola sekcije Leuce (Vegetative reproduction
of the Leuce poplars, FAO/CIP) 146, 1965.
61.
Herpk a I.: Hibridizacija i selekcija topola, Jug. kož. za topolu, 1960, Beograd
(Hybridization and selection of Poplars, »Radovi na istraživanju topola«, no 1.
1960, Beograd.
62.
Herpk a I.: Izbor i ispitivanje klonskog materijala topola za intenzivne zasade
(Selection of poplar clones for intensive plantations, Topola, no 28, 1962, Beograd
63.
Mutibari ć Z.: Varijacije zapreminske težine u deblu evroameričkih topola
(Variation of density in the stem of Populus x euramericana (Dode) Guinier;
Topola, no 34—35, 1963, Beograd.
64.
Vasili ć V.: Jedno obaveštenje o tzv. Rašiševskoj topoli (Information on so-
called »Ritiševo« — poplar, Topola, no 4, 1957, Beograd.
65.
Vasili ć V.: Osvrt na selekciju topola, (Looking back on the poplar selection.
Topola, no 12, 1959, Beograd.


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66.
Vui ć P.: Osetljivost nekih euroameričkih topola na bolesti Dothichiza populea
Sacc et Briard u našim uslovima klime (The susceptility of some euramerican
poplar to the disease Dothichiza populea Sacc et Briard, Topola, no 28, 1962,
Beograd.
4. Radovi od autora iz SR Slovenije (Institut za gozđno in lesno gospodarstvo,
Ljubljana)
67.
Brina r M.: Principi i metodi za izbor ssmenskih sastojina. (In Slowenien verwendete
Metode zur Anerkennung von Samenbeständen), Gozdarski vesnik,
1961, Ljubljana
68.
Brina r M.: O razvojnom ritmu različitih bukovih provinijencija odnosno ekotipova
(Über den Saisonsrhythmus verschiedener Buchenprovenienzen und Oekotypen),
Gozdarski vesnik 1963, Ljubljana.
69.
Brina r M.: Životna kriza jele na teritoriji Slovenije u vezi sa klimatskim fluktuacijama
(Das Tannensterben in Slowenien in Verbindung mit Klimatischen und
Oekotypen), Gozdarski vesnik, 1964, Ljubljana.
70.
Brina r M.: Zadaci i postignuća šumarskog semenarstva (Aufgaben und Erfolge
unseres Forstsamengutwesens) Soc. polj. i šum., 1964, Ljubljana.
5. Radovi autora iz SR Makedonije (Šumarski institut — Skopje)
71.
Nič o ta B.: Pojava dvopolnih cvetova kod P. Thevestine — Dođe (L´ apparition
des fleurs hermafrodites eher P. Thevestina, Dođe), Topola br. 22, Beograd 1961.
72.
Ničot a B.: Oplemenjivanje piramidalne topole P. n. L. vor. Thevestina (Dođe)
Bean (L´ amelioration du peuplier pyramidal) P. n. L. vor. Thevestina (Dođe)
Bean, Topola br. 28, 1962, Beograd.
73.
Ničot a B.: Neke oznake planinskih tipova belog bora na planini Nidže (Some
characters of mountain types of Scotsh pine on mount Nidže-P. silvestris L.
ssp. hamata (Stev From) Šumarstvo br. 1/2, 1963, Beograd.
74.
Ničot a B.: Recherches anatomiques sur les feuilles commen compement a la
connaissance morphologique des unites systematiques imfeurieures dans les populatinons
de pin noir, Act Con Mon. sur la gen for et am. Desorb. I F. A. O.
1963.
75.
Ničot a B.: Pridones kon izucuvanjeto na formite kaj nekoj četinarski vidovi
šumski drvja (Contribution a etude des formes chez quelqu´un l´especes conifeures),
Godišnjak Kn. VI, 1962/63, Skopje.
76.
Pejosk i B. — Ničot a B.: Proučavanje na piramidalnata topola od nekoi
mesnosti vo SR Makedonija (L´ etud sur le Peuplier pyramidal de la certaine
localite en P. S. M. Godišnjak, kn. VI, 1962-63, Skopje.
77.
Pejosk i B. — Ničot a B.: Pridones kon poznavanjeto na domašnite formi
na crn bor (Contribution a la Connaissance de formes du Pin noir en Macedoine),
Šumarski pregled, br. 56, 1964, Skopje.
6. Radovi autora iz SR Bosne i Hercegovine (Šumarski fakultet)
78.
Jovančevi ć M.: Prirodna nalazišta crnog bora (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica
Vis.) na otoku Korčuli. — Die natürlichen Standorte der Schwarzföhre auf der
Insel Korčula in Dalmatien — Narodni šumar 1961, Sarajevo.
79.
Jovančevi ć M.: Ogledi vegetativnog razmnožavanja nekih zimzelenih liščara.
— Versuche der vegetativen Vehrmehrung bei einigen mediterrannen Laubgehölzen.
Narodni šumar 1961, Sarajevo.
80.
Jovančevi ć M.: Određivanje klijavosti polena šumskog drveća. Determination
of Germination of Pollen of Forest Trees. Narodni šumar 1962, Sarajevo.
81.
Jovančević M.: Pojava i važnost mutacija za oplemenjivanje šumskog drveća.
(Occurence and Importance of Mutation for Genetics and Breeding of Forest
Trees. — Narodni šumar 1963, Sarajevo.
82.
Jovančevi ć M.: Uzgajanje i selekcija duglazije (Pseudotsuga taxifolia Britt.
u SAD Breeding and Improvement of Pseudotsuga taxifolia Britt.) in USA. Narodni
šumar 1963, Sarajevo.
83.
Jovančevi ć M.: Selekcija plus stabala. — Auswahl und Beschreibung von
Auslesebäumen in Bosnien und Hercegovina. — Narodni šumar 1963, Sarajevo.


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84.
Jovancevi c M:. DvopolnC´ »cvasti« u smrče. (Picea excelsa Link.). Die Fichte
mit weiblichen und männlichen Zapfen an denselben Trieben. — Narodni šumar
1964, Sarajevo.
85.
Jovancevi c M.: Prilog proučavanju varijabiliteta smrče. — Beitrag zur
Kentnis der Fichtenvariabilität. — Narodni šumar 1964, Sarajevo.
86.
Jovancevi c M.: Dali je višegradski crni bor posebna filogenetska rasa. (Obwisegrader Schwar/föhre eine neue phylogenetische Rasse ist.). Narodni šumar
1965, Sarajevo.
87.
Jovancevi c M.: Rasprostranjenje, varijabilitet i sistematika maced. hrasta.
(Quercus macedonica A DC.) u Jugoslaviji. — Area of Distribution, Morphology
and Taxonomy of Macedonian Oak. (Quercus macedonica A. DC.) in Yugoslavia.
—´ Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, Zagreb 1965.
88.
Jovančevi ć M.: O narodnim nazivima vrste quercus Macedonica A. DC. —
Les noms populaires de Quercus macedonica A. DC. — Radovi Šumarskog fakulteta
i Instituta za šumarstvo i drvnu industriju u Sarajevu 1962, Sarajevo.
89.
Jovančevi ć M.: Zakonski propisi o zaštiti šuma u Dubrovačkoj Republici.
(La Legislation sur 1´ exploitation et sur la protection des forets de la Republique
de Raguse. — Radovi Šumarskog fakulteta i Instituta za šumarstvo i
drvnu industriju u Sarajevu 1961.
90.
Jovančevi ć M.: Osnovni pojmovi iz genetike i izdvajanje semenskih objekata
šumskog drveća. — Genetik und Auslese der Samenbeständen der Forstbäumen.
— Jugoslavenski savetodavni centar za poljoprivredu i šumarstvo, 1961,
Beograd.
91.
Jovančevi ć M.: Primena genetike i selekcije u povećanju proizvodnosti šuma.
— L´ application de genetique et de selection dans 1´ augmentation de la
production des forets. — Savezna privredna komora Beograd, 1965.
H2.
Jovančevi ć M.: Principi i perspektive unapređivanja proizvodnje šumskog
semena u Bosni i Hercegovini. — Les principe« et 1´ aspect du renforcement de
la production des semences forestiers. — Institut za šumarstvo 1965, Sarajevo




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Učesnici Međunar. savj. o šumar, genetici u Karlovcu




ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 184     <-- 184 -->        PDF

Učesnici savjetovanja razgledaju plus stabla u sastojini Kender
(Gorski Kotar)